Exit Exam (Re-exam) Question papers: Public Laws


exit exam Laws_Page1National Educational Assessment and
Examinations Agency (NEAEA)
National Exit Examination for
LL.B Programme Students of Ethiopian
Law Schools
Academic Year 2014
Part I: Public Laws
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Exit Exam (Re-exam) Question papers: Private Laws


exit exam Laws_Page1Exit Exam (Re-exam) Question papers: Private Laws
National Educational Assessment and
Examinations Agency (NEAEA)
National Exit Examination for
LL.B Programme Students of Ethiopian
Law Schools
Academic Year 2014
Part I: Private Laws
DOWNLOAD

Federal Supreme Court Cassation Decisions Volume 16 Table of Contents


Cassation volume 16 Table of Contents_Page1The Federal Supreme Court has released the table of contents to volume 16.

Click the links below to download the files.

Federal Supreme Court Cassation Decisions Volume 16 Table of Contents  DOWNLOAD

Federal Supreme Court Cassation Decisions Volume 1- 16 Table of Contents DOWNLOAD

Those of you who have not read the previous notice by Ethiopian Legal Brief about a new on-line service in which you will be able to get immediate access to proclamations and regulations, please click HERE to get full information.

Pardon Proclamation and notice


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Thanks for viewing and subscribing to Ethiopian Legal Brief
Here is the newly published pardon proclamation as most of you have
been asking for this document.

Please also download and read the notice by Ethiopian Legal Brief
about a new service to be started in the next two months.

Proclamation No. 840/2014  Procedure of Granting and Executing Pardon Proclamation DOWNLOAD

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The African Online Library: Translated Cassation Decisions


I never profiled useful web pages that provide information and resources on Ethiopian law before. But, the fact is you cannot get what want simply because you have an internet access. I frequently receive emails asking for a document which is available on my blog. For this reason I have started sharing the best and resourceful web site specifically law web sites and law blogs you should visit.

For today, the African Online Library (http://www.africanlawlibrary.net) is my recommendation. If you are looking for English version of decisions of the Cassation bench, this is the place you should spend some time. It contains more than one hundred selected decisions of the cassation bench translated in to English. The availability of English copy of court decisions is highly important for law teachers, researchers, foreign legal scholars and others wishing to have a deeper understanding of the Ethiopian judiciary.

Here is a brief info about the web site and how you can get the court decisions.
As stated in its ‘about’ page the African Online Library on Law and Governance (the African Law Library) is an innovative online portal available free of charge to all those interested in African law and governance. The Library was initiated in 2012 by Jean-Claude Bastos de Morais, a successful international entrepreneur from Angola and Switzerland, and Founder of the African Innovation Foundation.

The web site is the first of its kind to provide free and easy access to legal and judicial materials of almost all African countries. In order to have full access to the resources of the site first you need to register and create an account. The good news is that registration is free and it will not take long. Just click on ‘Register for Free’ on the left side of the menu and fill the form.
By registering you will be able to:

Access an extensive range of full-text documents, legislation, court decisions and journal articles on African law free of charge;
• Upload your documents to the African Law Library to share your insights with other users of the library, helping to make the African Law Library truly comprehensive;
• Find other registered participants – globally, regionally and nationally – with similar interests to you;
• Manage your online profile on your page “My African Law Library”; and
• Join or create online workgroups in your field of interest, and invite other participants to join.

After your account is active, now you can find materials of your choice either by searching the library or browsing for the library.
When you click browse the library on the left menu you have the option to browse:
Countries: Simply select your chosen country to access the available legal texts, journal articles, or other documents.
Institutions: Select the institution in which you are interested to find material relating to that institution. The list of institutions is being added to all the time.
Other Collections: The African Law Library is creating online collections on areas of special interest.
Journals: The African Law Library offers full-text access to many journals on Africa, law and related issues. Choose the journal in which you are interested and you can search the journal by keyword, date, thematic interest etc. You also have the opportunity to set up an email alert to inform you when new articles are available. Please note that as journals are being added all the time not all content may be immediately available.

If you are interested in legal and judicial materials of Ethiopia, click countries and then click Ethiopia.
Then you will see legislation and court decisions tab. The web site contains limited number of proclamations, so it is not recommended as a useful resource of Ethiopian legislative materials.
The court decisions tab contains more than 100 Cassation bench decisions translated in to English. Just click on the document of your choice and download.
If you have difficulty locating the court decisions tab click HERE

ሰበር ውሳኔ የሰጠበት ህግ ‘ሲሻር’ የውሳኔው የአስገዳጅነት ውጤት


ሰበር ውሳኔ የሰጠበት ህግ ‘ሲሻር’ የውሳኔው የአስገዳጅነት ውጤት

የፌደራል ጠቅላይ ፍርድ ቤት የሰበር ችሎት ውሳኔ በስር ፍርድ ቤቶች ላይ የአስገዳጅነት ውጤት እንዲኖረው በህግ የተደነገገው በ1997 ዓ.ም. ሲሆን የሰበር ችሎት የዚህን አዋጅ መውጣት ተከትሎ በሰበር ስልጣኑ የሚሰጣቸው ውሳኔዎች በፌደራልና በክልል የስር ፍርድ ቤቶች ላይ የአስገዳጅነት ውጤት አግኝተዋል፡፡ ሆኖም በአዋጅ ቁ 454/1997 ላይ የድንጋጌ ለውጥ ሳይኖር የአንድ አዋጅን መሻር ተከትሎ በሰበር ትርጉም የተሰጠበት ውሳኔ የሚኖረው ህጋዊ ውጤት በህጉ አፈፃፀም ላይ በተግባር የሚያጋጥም ችግር ሆኗል፡፡

በእርግጥ ሰበር ትርጉም የሰጠበት ህግ ተሸሮ ትርጉም የተሰጠበት ድንጋጌም ቀሪ ወይም ውጤት የሌለው በሚሆንበት ጊዜ ውሳኔውም ያለ አንዳች ቅድመ-ሁኔታ ለቀጣይ ተመሳሳይ ጉዳዮች የአስገዳጅነት ውጤት ሊኖረው እንደማይችል ግልጽ ነው፡፡ ለምሳሌ አዋጅ ቁጥር 639/2001 ለባንክ ወይም ለአነስተኛ የፋይናንስ ተቋም ብድር መያዣነት የተሰጠ የማይንቀሳቀስ ንብረትን የሚመለከት ውል በፍርድ ቤት መዝገብ ወይም ስልጣን በተሰጠው አዋዋይ ፊት መፈረም እንደማያስፈልገው በመደንገግ በፍትሐ ብሔር ህግ ቁጥር 1723 ስር የተመለከተውን ቅድመ-ሁኔታ በከፊል ቀሪ አድርጎታል፡፡ ስለሆነም የሰበር ችሎት ከዚህ አዋጅ መውጣት በፊት የፍትሐ ብሔር ህግ ቁጥር 1723ን መሰረት በማድረግ ለባንክ ወይም ለአነስተኛ የፋይናንስ ተቋም ብድር መያዣነት የተሰጠ የማይንቀሳቀስ ንብረትን የሚመለከት ውልን በመተርጎም የሰጣቸው ውሳኔዎች በስር ፍርድ ቤቶች የአስገዳጅነት ውጤት አይኖራቸውም ማለት ነው፡፡

ይሁን እንጂ አንዳንድ ጊዜ አንድ አዋጅ ሙሉ በሙሉ ተሽሮ በአዲስ አዋጅ ሲተካ በተሻረው አዋጅና በአዲሱ አዋጅ የሚገኙ የተወሰኑ ድንጋጌዎች ምንም ዓይነት የይዘት ለውጥ አይደረግባቸውም፡፡ ለዚህ ጥሩ አብነት የሚሆነን የአሰሪና ሰራተኛ አዋጅ ቁጥር 42/85 በ377/96 መተካት ነው፡፡ ምንም እንኳን አዋጅ ቁጥር 42/85 በ377/96 የተሻረ ቢሆንም በቀድሞው አዋጅ ላይ የነበሩ ብዙ ድንጋጌዎች ምንም ዓይነት የይዘት ለውጥ አልተደረገባቸውም፡፡ ለምሳሌ የአዋጁን የተፈጻሚነት ወሰን የሚመለቱ ድንጋጌዎች፤ የስራ ውል አመሰራረትን የሚመለከቱ ድንጋጌዎች፤ የስራ ውል የሚቆይበትን ጊዜ አስመልክቶ የተቀመጡ ድንጋጌዎች (አዲስ ንዑስ አንቀጾች ከመጨመራቸው ውጪ የቀድሞ ድንጋጌዎች አልተቀየሩም) እንዲሁም ሌሎች ብዙ ድንጋጌዎች ይዘታቸው አልተቀየረም፡፡

እዚህ ላይ ጥያቄ ይነሳል፡፡ የይዘት ለውጥ ባልተደረገበት አንቀጽ ላይ አዋጅ ቁጥር 42/85ን መሰረት በማድረግ በሰበር የተሰጠ ውሳኔ አዋጁ በ377/96 ከተሻረ በኋላም የአስገዳጅነት ውጤት አለው?

በዚህ ነጥብ ላይ የሰበር ችሎት በሁሉም ዓይነት የስራ ክርክር፤ የፍትሐብሔር፤ የወንጀልና ሌሎች ጉዳዮች ላይ ወጥ በሆነ መልኩ ተፈፃሚነት ያለው ውሳኔ ያልሰጠ ቢሆንም የአሰሪና ሰራተኛ ጉዳይን በተመለከተ ግን በከፊልም ቢሆን ምላሽ ሰጥቶበታል፡፡ ስለሆነም በአዋጅ ቁጥር 42/85 መሰረት የተሰጠ የሰበር ውሳኔ አዋጅ ቁጥር 377/96 ከወጣ በኃላ በአዲሱ አዋጅ መሰረት የሚነሱ የስራ ክርክሮች ላይ የሚኖረውን ህጋዊ ውጤት በከፊልም ቢሆን ምላሽ ያገኘ ይመስላል፡፡

በሐመረ ወርቅ ቅ/ማሪያም ቤተክርስቲያን ሰበካ ጉባኤ ጽ/ቤት እና እነ ዲያቆን ምህረተ ብርሐን (6 ሰዎች) (የሰ.መ.ቁ.18419 ግንቦት 4 ቀን 1998 ዓ.ም) በነበረው የአሰሪና ሰራተኛ ክርክር ሰበር ችሎቱ የተያዘውን ጉዳይ ብቻ አስመልክቶ እንዳለው አዋጅ ቁጥር 42/85 በአዋጅ ቁጥር 377/96 የተሻረ ቢሆንም ነጥቡን በሚመለከት ሁለቱ አዋጆች አንድ አይነት ድንጋጌዎችን የያዙ በመሆኑ ችሎቱ የአዋጅ ቁጥር 42/85 ድንጋጌዎችን መሰረት አድርጎ በተጠቀሰው ነጥብ ላይ የሰጠው የህግ ትርጉም ለአዋጅ ቁጥር 377/96 ድንጋጌዎችም አግባብነት ያለው ነው፡፡

ወደ ስራ በመመለስ ፋንታ ካሳ ከፍሎ ማሰናበት፡ የሰበር ውሳኔዎች ዳሰሳ


ወደ ስራ በመመለስ ፋንታ ካሳ ከፍሎ ማሰናበት፡ የሰበር ውሳኔዎች ዳሰሳ

1.  መግቢያ

በአሰሪና ሰራተኛ አዋጅ ቁጥር 377/96 አንቀጽ 43(3) እንደተደነገገው ከህግ ውጭ የስራ ውሉ የተቋረጠበት ሰራተኛ ወደ ስራ የመመለስ ጥያቄ በግልጽ ቢያቀርብም ጉዳዩን የሚያየው የስራ ክርክሮችን የሚወስነው አካል ጥያቄውን ባለመቀበል ካሳ ተከፍሎት እንዲሰናበት ማዘዝ ይችላል፡፡ ይህም የሚሆነው ከስራ ግንኙነቱ ጠባይ የተነሳ የስራ ግንኙነቱ ቢቀጥል ከፍተኛ ችግር ያስከትላል ብሎ ከታመነ ነው፡፡ ትዕዛዙ ዋናው ክርክር በሚታይበት ጊዜ ብቻ ሳይሆን በአፈጻጸም ወቅትም ሊሰጥ ይችላል፡፡

ለመሆኑ ይህን መሰሉ ትዕዛዝ ለመስጠት አሳማኝ የሆኑት ሁኔታዎች ምንድናቸው? በሰበር ችሎት በኩል ያለው አቋምስ ምን ይመስላል? እነዚህን ጥያቄዎች የሰበር ውሳኔዎችን መሰረት በማደረግ በአጭሩ እንዳስሳለን፡፡

2.  መለኪያው

የአሰሪና ሰራተኛ አዋጅ ቁጥር 377/96 አንቀጽ 43(3) ድንጋጌ ሊተረጎም የሚገባው “በአንድ በኩል የሰራተኛውን የስራ ዋስትና በሌላ በኩል ደግሞ የኢንዱስትሪን ሰላም በማመዛዘን ሊሆን ይገባዋል፡፡ በመሆኑም ሰራተኛው ወደ ስራ መመለሱ የአሰሪውን ስራ በከፍተኛ ደረጃ ሊጎዳ የሚችል መሆኑ ካልተረጋገጠ በቀር ሰራተኛው በሆነው ባልሆነው ከስራ እንዲሰናበት ማድረጉ ተገቢ አይሆንም” (አዲስ አበባ ሂልተን ሆቴል እና አቶ ዘላለም መንግስቱ ሰ/መ/ቁ 55189 ሰኔ 30 ቀን 2002 ዓ.ም. ቅጽ 9)

ሰበር ችሎት በሌላ ውሳኔው (የአብጃታ ሶዳ አሽ አክሲዮን ማህበር እና ወ/ሮ ማርታ አበበ ሰ/መ/ቁ. 82336 ጥር 20 ቀን 2005 ዓ.ም. ቅጽ 14) ላይ እንዳመለከተው የድንጋጌው መንፈስ ከአሰሪና ሰራተኛ ህግ አጠቃላይ ዓላማና በኢ.ፌ.ዲ.ሪ. ህገ-መንግስት አንቀጽ 42 ስር ከተቀመጠው ድንጋጌ አንጻር ተዳምሮ ሲታይ እንደሚያስገነዝበው አንቀጽ 43(3) ተግባራዊ ሲደረግ የስራ ዋስትና ዋጋ በማያጣበት አግባብ ሊከናወን ይገባዋል፡፡

መለኪያውን ከማስቀመጥ ባሻገር የስራ ክርክሮችን የሚወስነው አካል ድንጋጌውን ተፈጻሚ ሲያደርግ የስራ ግንኙነቱ ከፍተኛ ችግር ውስጥ ይወድቃል ብሎ ማመኑ ብቻ በቂ አይደለም፡፡ ከዚህ ባለፈ የስራ ግንኙነቱ ከፍተኛ ችግር ውስጥ ይወድቃል ብሎ ለማመን የሚያስችል በቂ ምክንያት ሊኖረው ይገባል፡፡ (የጎሽና እርግብ መለስተኛና አነስተኛ የሕዝብ ማመላለሻ ባለንብረቶች ማህበር እና አቶ ተሰማ ኃይሉ ሰ/መ/ቁ. 49931 ሚያዝያ 21 ቀን 2002 ዓ.ም. ቅጽ 9) በችሎቱ ውሳኔ ላይ እንደተመለከተው “ያለ በቂ ማስረጃና ምክንያት አሰሪው የስራ ግንኙነቱ ችግር ላይ ሊወድቅ ይችላል ብሎ ስለተከራከረ ብቻ ድንጋጌውን ተግባራዊ ማድረግ የስራ ዋስትናን ጥያቄ ውስጥ የሚያስገባ ይሆናል፡፡” Continue reading →

Legal effect of absence of termination notice: Summary of Cassation decisions


Legal effect of absence of termination notice: Summary of Cassation decisions

 

Introduction

An employment contract irrespective of its duration may be legally terminated with notice provided one of the grounds in article 28 of the labour proclamation is present. Merely giving notice in the absence of a valid ground does not make the termination lawful. This being the case, what will be the legal effect of termination with a valid ground (Article 28) but without notice? The common understanding is that the legal effect of absence of notice of termination is only payment in lieu of notice, but does not make the termination unlawful. The cassation bench has also affirmed such common understanding in its decision. (Altabe College Vs. Seid Mohammed Cassation File Number 39580 Ginbot 18-2001 E.C.) As a result a worker will not be entitled to reinstatement or compensation and severance pay.

However, a question may be raised when one reads article 41 of the labour proclamation. Article 41 of labour proclamation No.377/96:

“Where an employer or a worker fails to comply with the requirements laid down in this Proclamation or other relevant law regarding termination, the termination shall be unlawful.” Continue reading →

Proof of dismissal: Summary of Cassation decisions


Proof of dismissal: Summary of Cassation decisions

Introduction

A worker claiming unlawful dismissal is not required to prove that his dismissal is contrary to the labour proclamation no.377/2006. Once the claim is submitted by the worker, the burden of proving the legality of the dismissal lies on the employer. This being the case, the worker has to prove the very existence of dismissal (if it is denied by the employer) in order to shift the burden of proving its legality to the employer. Dismissal signifies an act or measure taken by an employer. When the employer denies that he has not taken this measure, it is up to the worker to prove that he has been actually dismissed by the employer. An interpretation of the law by the Cassation bench in this regard clearly shows that the burden of proving the existence of dismissal lies on the worker. (China Road and Bridge Construction Enterprise Vs. Ato Girma Bushera, Cassation File No. 57541 Hidar 14-2003 E.C. (Cassation Decisions Volume 11)

Distinction between resignation, constructive dismissal and dismissal

Resignation is a personal and voluntary act of the worker to terminate his employment contract. According to article 31 of the labour proclamation No. 377/2006 a worker has unlimited freedom to terminate his employment contract any time even in the absence of a valid ground. The only procedural requirement is giving prior notice of thirty days to the employer. A worker resigning without notice will be liable to pay compensation. According to article 45 sub article 2 of the labour proclamation this compensation could not exceed thirty days wage of the worker. Continue reading →

አንታራም ህጎቸ፤ ከዓለም ዙሪያና ከአገራችን


አንዳንዴ በየአገሩ የሚወጣው ህግ ይዘት ያስገርማል፡፡ ህግ በአንድ ህብረተሰብ ውስጥ ሰላም ስርዓትና ፀጥታ እንዲሰፍን የሚረዱ ደንቦችን በመደንገግ የጠቅላላውን ህብረተሰብ ማህበራዊና ኢኮኖሚያዊ እንቅስቃሴ ጠቅለል ባለ መልኩ ይቆጣጠራል፡፡ የአንድ አገር ህጎች ከአገሪቱ እድገት ጋር እያደጉ ሲመጡ በህግ ጥላ ስር የሚወደቀው የሰው ልጆች ባህርይ ድርጊትና እንቅስቃሴም እየሰፋ ይመጣል፡፡
ለምሳሌ በእኛ አገር መንገድ ላይ ወይም ሰው ፊት መትፋት ነውር ቢሆንም በህግ ግን በግልጽ የሚያስቀጣ ድርጊት አይደለም፡፡ በአሜሪካ በሚገኙ ብዙ ግዛቶች ይህን መሰሉ ነውር ድርጊት ለሥነ-ምግባር የተተወ ብቻ ሳይሆን በህግ ያስቀጣል፡፡ እንስሳትን መጠጥ ማጠጣት እንዲሁ በሀገራችን ድርጊቱ ያልተለመደ ከመሆኑም በላይ /ለዛውም በተወደደ ቢራ!/ በማህበረሰቡም ዘንድ ብዙም ትኩረት የሚሰጠው ጉዳይ አይደለም፡፡ አንዳንድ የአሜሪካ ግዛቶች እንስሳትን መጠጥ ማጠጣት የሚከለክል ግልጽ ህግ አላቸው፡፡ Continue reading →

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