Proof of dismissal: Summary of Cassation decisions


Proof of dismissal: Summary of Cassation decisions

Introduction

A worker claiming unlawful dismissal is not required to prove that his dismissal is contrary to the labour proclamation no.377/2006. Once the claim is submitted by the worker, the burden of proving the legality of the dismissal lies on the employer. This being the case, the worker has to prove the very existence of dismissal (if it is denied by the employer) in order to shift the burden of proving its legality to the employer. Dismissal signifies an act or measure taken by an employer. When the employer denies that he has not taken this measure, it is up to the worker to prove that he has been actually dismissed by the employer. An interpretation of the law by the Cassation bench in this regard clearly shows that the burden of proving the existence of dismissal lies on the worker. (China Road and Bridge Construction Enterprise Vs. Ato Girma Bushera, Cassation File No. 57541 Hidar 14-2003 E.C. (Cassation Decisions Volume 11)

Distinction between resignation, constructive dismissal and dismissal

Resignation is a personal and voluntary act of the worker to terminate his employment contract. According to article 31 of the labour proclamation No. 377/2006 a worker has unlimited freedom to terminate his employment contract any time even in the absence of a valid ground. The only procedural requirement is giving prior notice of thirty days to the employer. A worker resigning without notice will be liable to pay compensation. According to article 45 sub article 2 of the labour proclamation this compensation could not exceed thirty days wage of the worker. Continue reading →

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አንታራም ህጎቸ፤ ከዓለም ዙሪያና ከአገራችን


አንዳንዴ በየአገሩ የሚወጣው ህግ ይዘት ያስገርማል፡፡ ህግ በአንድ ህብረተሰብ ውስጥ ሰላም ስርዓትና ፀጥታ እንዲሰፍን የሚረዱ ደንቦችን በመደንገግ የጠቅላላውን ህብረተሰብ ማህበራዊና ኢኮኖሚያዊ እንቅስቃሴ ጠቅለል ባለ መልኩ ይቆጣጠራል፡፡ የአንድ አገር ህጎች ከአገሪቱ እድገት ጋር እያደጉ ሲመጡ በህግ ጥላ ስር የሚወደቀው የሰው ልጆች ባህርይ ድርጊትና እንቅስቃሴም እየሰፋ ይመጣል፡፡
ለምሳሌ በእኛ አገር መንገድ ላይ ወይም ሰው ፊት መትፋት ነውር ቢሆንም በህግ ግን በግልጽ የሚያስቀጣ ድርጊት አይደለም፡፡ በአሜሪካ በሚገኙ ብዙ ግዛቶች ይህን መሰሉ ነውር ድርጊት ለሥነ-ምግባር የተተወ ብቻ ሳይሆን በህግ ያስቀጣል፡፡ እንስሳትን መጠጥ ማጠጣት እንዲሁ በሀገራችን ድርጊቱ ያልተለመደ ከመሆኑም በላይ /ለዛውም በተወደደ ቢራ!/ በማህበረሰቡም ዘንድ ብዙም ትኩረት የሚሰጠው ጉዳይ አይደለም፡፡ አንዳንድ የአሜሪካ ግዛቶች እንስሳትን መጠጥ ማጠጣት የሚከለክል ግልጽ ህግ አላቸው፡፡ Continue reading →

Customs proclamation final draft


Customs proclamation Final draft (Amaharic)       DOWNLOAD
Customs proclamation Final draft (English)     DOWNLOAD

This is the final draft customs proclamation. So what is new? Almost everything is new. The part dealing with offences and penalty has significantly eased the harsh punishments of customs proclamation No. 622/2009.
Article 91(1) of the customs proclamation No. 622/2009 crime of contraband i.e. importing or exporting prohibited or restricted goods was punishable with rigorous imprisonment from 7 to 15 years and fine equivalent to the amount of the customs duties and taxes payable on the goods. Additionally, the goods and equipments used in the commission of the offence and the proceeds will be confiscated.
According to the new draft, the punishment is rigorous imprisonment not less than five years and not exceeding 10 years and fine not less than Birr 50,000 and not exceeding Birr 200,000.
The conditions, under which the means of transport could be confiscated, have also been significantly changed. The draft provides that any means of transport used to carry goods liable to forfeiture shall be forfeited to the Government if:
a) the means of transport is constructed, adopted or fitted with a compartment to conceal goods;
b) the owner of the means of transport, being aware of the fact, fails to take appropriate measure to prevent or stop the commission of the act; or
c) if the owner of the means of transport fail to appear after being summoned
In the previous proclamation, punishment for obstruction of customs formalities was a fine of Birr 5,000 up to 10,000 and imprisonment from 3 to 5 years. If the crime is committed by use of force or by an organized group, the punishment extends from five to ten years rigorous imprisonment. According to the new draft, obstruction of customs control entails punishment of simple imprisonment not less than six months and not exceeding one year and fine not less than Birr 5,000 and not exceeding Birr 10,000. In case of use of force or commission of the offence by an organized group, the imprisonment shall extend from one to five years rigorous imprisonment.
The new draft also authorizes the Director General of the Authority to decide that criminal charges not to be instituted where:
1/ the alleged offender cannot follow the proceedings due to old age or chronic disease;
2/ it is believed that the proceeding of the case in court will harm national security or international relations;
3/ instituting proceedings may cause an unbalanced side effect;
4/ the charge has not been instituted in time and thus has lost its relevance;
5/ there are other similar reasons.

መመሪያ የሌለው መመሪያ


በመርህ ደረጃ ህግ የማውጣት ስልጣን የህግ አውጭው ነው እንላለን እንጂ በተግባር ግን ህግ የሚወጣው በተወካዮች ምክር ቤት ብቻ አይደለም፡፡ ይህ በኢትዮጵያ ብቻ ሳይሆን በየትም አገር ያለ እውነታ ነው፡፡ በየጊዜው እያደገ ከሚመጣው ማህበራዊና ኢኮኖሚያዊ ችግር ውስብስብነት የተነሳ ህግ አውጭው ለእያንዳንዷ ችግር መፍትሄ የሚሆን ህግ ከልሂቅ እስከ ደቂቅ በዓይነትና በጥራት ማቅረብ ይሳነዋል፡፡ አንድ የህግ ረቂቅ ውጤት ያለው ህግ ለመሆን ከሚፈጀው ረጅም ጊዜና ዝርዝር የስነ-ስርዓት ቅድመ ሁኔታ አንፃር ህግ አውጭው በየጊዜው ለሚፈጠር ችግር በየጊዜው አዋጅ እያወጣ መፍትሄ ለመስጠት በቂ ግዜ የለውም፡፡ ከዚህም በተጨማሪ አንዳንድ ዝርዝር ጉዳዮች ልዩ እውቀትን የሚጠይቁ እንደመሆኑ ውስን የሆነው የህግ አውጭው እውቀት፤ የህግ ማውጣት ስልጣን በተግባር በከፊል የተገደበ እንዲሆንና ሌላ አማራጭ እንዲፈልግ ያስገድደዋል፡ ይህ አማራጭ በውክልና ህግ ( Delegated Legislation) ይባላል፡፡ ተግባራዊ ከሆኑት አስፈላጊ ምክንያቶች የተነሳ ህግ አውጭው ከህዝብ የተሰጠውን ህግ የማውጣት ስልጣን በከፊል ቆርሶ ለስራ አስፈፃውና ለአስተዳደር መስሪያ ቤቶች ይሰጣል፡፡ በዚሁ መሰረት የሚኒስተሮች ምክር ቤት በተወካዮች ምክር ቤት በአዋጅ በሚሰጠው ስልጣን መሰረት ደንብ ይደነግጋል፡፡ በተመሳሳይ መልኩ የአስተዳደር መስሪያ ቤቶች በውክልና የህግ አውጭነት ስልጣናቸው መመሪያዎችን ያወጣሉ፡፡

ዋነኛ ስልጣኑ ህግ ማስፈፀም የሆነው ስራ አስፈፃሚው የመንግስት አካል በደንብና በመመሪያ የህግ አውጭነት ስልጣን ደርቦ መያዙ ከስልጣን ክፍፍል መርህ ጋር የሚጣረስ ቢሆንም የህግ አውጭው የጊዜና የእውቀት እጥረት እንዲሁም የመንግስት አስተዳደርን ብቁና ውጤታ ከማድረግ አንፃር በተግባር የግድ ሚል እውነታ ሆኗል፡፡ ሆኖም የውክልና ህግ በዚህ እውነታ ብቻ የሚቋጭ ጉዳይ አይደለም፡፡ ያልተገደበ ስልጣን መኖር ለዜጎች መብትና ነፃት መቼም ቢሆን አደገኛነቱ ጥርጥር የለውም፡፡ የውክልና ህግ የአስፈላጊነቱ እውነታ ከዜጎች መብትና ነፃት ጋር እንዲጣጣም ወይም እንዲታረቅ ተግባራዊ የስልጣን መቆጣጠሪያ መሳሪያ እንዲኖር ግድ ይላል፡፡ እንደ የአስተዳደር ህግ ምሁሩ ዌድ አገላለጽ ከዜጎች ላይ ነፃነት ሲቀነስ አብሮ ፍትህ መጨመር አለበት፡፡ የመንግስት ስልጣኑ ሲለጠጥ በዛው ልክ የዜጎች መብትና ነፃነት እየተሸበሸበ ይመጣል፡፡ ስልጣን ሲጨምር ፍትህም አብሮ መጨመር አለበት፡፡ ይህ ማለት ስራ አስፈፃው ተጨማሪ የህግ አውጭነት ስልጣን ሲሰጠው ስልጣኑን በአግባቡና ፍትሃዊ በሆነ መንገድ ስለመገልገሉ የሚያረጋግጥ ይህም ባልሆነ ጊዜ የሚቆጣጠር መሳሪያ ያስፈልጋል ማለት ነው፡፡ Continue reading →

ጥቂት ስለ ህጎች ተደራሽነት


ዳኞች በተሻረ ህግ ውሳኔ ሰጥተዋል የሚባለው የጭምጭምታ ወሬ ከተራ ሐሜት ወደ ቁንጽል እውነት የመሸጋገሩ ነገር ከተገቢ ጥርጣሬ በላይ ባይረጋገጥም በአዲስ አዋጅ መዘግየት ምክንያት ፈጣን ፍትህ ለመስጠት መቸገራቸው ግን ገሃድ የወጣ ሐቅ ነው፡፡ አልፎ አልፎ የሚያጋጥም ቢሆንም ክስተቱ የአገሪቱን የህግ ሥርዓትና የህግ የበላይነት ጥያቄ ውስጥ የሚያስገባ ጥቁር ነጥብ ነው፡፡ ከሁሉም በላይ አዲስ የወጣ ህግ እንዲደርሳቸው የሚገባው ፍርድ ቤቶች ቢሆኑም እዛም ቤት ችግር መኖሩ የችግሩን ስፋትና ጥልቀት ይጠቁመናል፡፡ በተለይ ከአዲስ አበባ ውጭ ርቀው የሚገኙ ፍርድ ቤቶች አዲስ የወጣ አዋጅ በየጊዜው ስላልደረሳቸው ብቻ የመውጣቱን ዜና በጥቅሉ ከሚዲያ ሰምተው ለዚሁ ሲባል የያዙትን ጉዳይ ለሌላ ቀጠሮ ማስተላለፋቸው ለማስተዋል ተችሏል፡፡

ግልጽነት በኢ.ፌ.ድ.ሪ. ህገ-መንግስት እንደ መሰረታዊ መርህ ቢቀመጥም እውነታው ግን በወረቀት ከተፃፈው ጋር ሊጣጣም አልቻለም፡፡ የመንግስት አስተዳደርን በተመለከተ የዜጋው መረጃ የማግኘት መብት እስከአሁን ድረስ በተግባር አልተረጋገጠም፡፡ እዚህ ላይ ለመድረስ ገና ብዙ የሚቀረን ነው የሚመስለው፡፡ ይህን ለመረዳት ብዙ ርቆ መሄድ አያስፈልግም፡፡ እንኳንስ ከመንግስት መስሪያ ቤት መረጃና ሰነድ ማግኘት ቀርቶ የግድ የሚለውን የአገሪቱን ህጎች በቀላሉ ለማግኘት አስቸጋሪ የሆነበት ደረጃ ላይ ደርሰናል፡፡ Continue reading →

PROCLAMATION No. 798-2013 A PROCLAMATION TO RE-ENACT FOR THE STRENGTHENING AND SPECIFYING THE POWERS AND DUTIES OF THE COUNCIL OF CONSTITUTIONAL INQUIRY


PROCLAMATION No. 798/2013
A PROCLAMATION TO RE-ENACT FOR THE STRENGTHENING AND SPECIFYING THE POWERS AND DUTIES OF THE COUNCIL OF CONSTITUTIONAL INQUIRY OF THE FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF ETHIOPIA

WHEREAS, it is believed that the full-fledged implementation of the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, the supreme law of the land, is a guarantee to the continuation of the ongoing democratic system, development and peace;
WHEREAS, the Council of Constitutional Inquiry is established by virtue of Article 82 of the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia to conduct constitutional •inquiries and present its findings to the House of the Federation which is empowered to interpret the Constitution;
WHEREAS, the Council is empowered to investigate constitutional disputes as per Article 84 of the Constitution which necessitates to have better practice and structure to respond to issues related to the interpretation of the Constitution efficiently;
WHEREAS, the Council needs to have its own supporting office so that it can discharge its duties efficiently while maintaining its constitutional independence;
NOW, THEREFORE, in accordance With Article 55 (1) of the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, it is hereby proclaimed as follows

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Federal Supreme Court Cassation Decisions Volume 15


Cassation Volume 15_Page1

Federal Supreme Court Cassation Decisions Volume 15 is now officially released.

DOWNLOAD

2013/14 Exit Exam Question Papers


National Educational Assessment and Examinations Agency (NEAEA)

National Exit Examination for

LL.B Programme Students of Ethiopian Law Schools

Academic Year 2013/2014

Part I:  Private Laws                          DOWNLOAD
Part II:  Public Laws                          DOWNLOAD

Part III:  Procedural Laws and Skill Courses    DOWNLOAD

Part IV:  Miscellaneous Courses      DOWNLOAD

Index to Cassation Deisions Volume 15


volume 15 Table of Contents_Page1

Index to cassation decisions volume 15

The Federal Supreme Court has released the index to volume 15 of cassation decisions.

Click the link below to download the file.

volume 15 Table of contents  DOWNLOAD

 

 

New Proclamations and Regulations 2013/14


Proclamations

Proclamation No. 808/2013 Information Network Security Agency Re-establishment Proclamation DOWNLOAD

Proclamation No. 810/2013 Energy Proclamation DOWNLOAD

Proclamation No. 811/2013 Trucks Demurrage Proclamation DOWNLOAD

Proclamation No. 812/2013 Export – Import Bank of China Loan Agreement Periods Additional Loan for Addis Ababa Adama Toll Motorway Design and Build and a Loan for Addis Ababa Toll Motorway Phase II Project Ratification Proclamation DOWNLOAD

Proclamation No. 815/2013 Bilateral Air Service Agreement Between the Government of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia and the Government of the Republic of Senegal Ratification Proclamation DOWNLOAD

Proclamation No. 818/2014  Urban Land Registration Proclamation DOWNLOAD
Proclamation 823/2014 International Development Association Financing Agreement for Financing the Second General Education Improvement Project II, Ratification Proclamation DOWNLOAD

Proclamation 824/2014 International Development Association Financing Agreement for Financing the Sustainable Land Management Project II , Ratification Proclamation DOWNLOAD

 

Regulations

 

Regulation No. 298/2013 Public Service Employee’s Transport Service Enterprise Establishment Council of Ministers Regulation DOWNLOAD

Regulation No. 299/2013 Food, Medicine and Health Care Administration and Control Council of Ministers Regulation DOWNLOAD

Regulation No. 300/2013 Insurance Fund Administration Agency Establishment Council of Ministers Regulation DOWNLOAD

Regulation No. 301/20 13 Ethiopian Public Health Institute Establishment Council of Ministers Regulation DOWNLOAD

Regulation No. 302/2013 Ethiopian Electric Power Establishment Council of Ministers Regulation DOWNLOAD

Regulation No. 303/2013 Ethiopian Electric Utility Establishment Council of Ministers Regulation DOWNLOAD

 

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