St. Mary’s University
Backgrounds of the Study
An accident is defined as a traffic accident if it occurs on a road or in a place to which the public have access. This can include footpaths and bridleways. As number of factors contributes to the risk of collision include: vehicle design, speed of operation, road design, and driver impairment. Worldwide, motor vehicle collisions lead to significant death and disability as well as significant financial costs to both society and the
individual. Road traffic accident is a major cause of deaths and property damages around the globe off course, it will be worse when we see the countries in Africa. This problem is common in underdeveloped countries like
Ethiopia. For instance, the fatalities per 10,000 populations in 1989 were 3 and 36 in Ethiopia and South Africa respect lively. Where as in Sweden and Great Britain, the fatalities were 9 each in similar year (Berhanu: 2000:24).
Road traffic accident of Ethiopia is expected to be higher in Addis Ababa as most vehicles are found in the city. Thus, the annual road traffic accident report indicated that the problem was not minimized as
expected. For instance, the traffic controlling and investigation department accident record of the year 2007-2010 indicated that more than 1273 people died, more than 2315 heavily injured, more than 2428 slightly injured and more than 19760 cars were crashed with only property damage which is estimated more than 80 million birr in four years.
Realizing the existence of this road traffic accident, the Addis Ababa city administration has been regularly establishing controlling mechanisms by Traffic Controlling and Investigation department which is authorized to undertake this task. Many researchers have been conducted aboard and in Ethiopia to traffic accident. Of the studies conducted aboard,
Nilson (1996) can be taken as one example. This study is aimed at analyzing traffic safeties for 25 years which is undertaken in Swedish national Road Traffic research Institute. Besides, the Ministry of Transport and Communications of Norway conducted a research to assess road safety by setting a strategy (2002-2011).
On the other hand, Girma (2000) conducted a research that aimed to assess the effect of road and traffic factors on road safety in Ethiopia.