Extraordinary Rendition And Extraterritorial State Obligations In African Human Rights System

Extraordinary Rendition And Extraterritorial State Obligations In African Human Rights System

Brook Kebede Abebe

Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of Master of Laws Degree
(LL.M) in International Human Rights Law at Addis Ababa University                           DOWNLOAD (.pdf)

Abstract
Extraordinary rendition is a coercive, clandestine and illegal capturing and transferring of individuals from one state to another by state agents, or agents acting under the sponsorship of another state. By its nature, extraordinary rendition entails multifaceted human rights violations including denial of access to competent and impartial tribunals, to fair trails, and due process of law but worryingly involves torture as a means of interrogation. Moreover, in a single extraordinary rendition act several states may be involved as organizers, facilitators, abductors and safe-keepers, almost always clandestinely. Extraordinary rendition is thus a very complex and clandestine act which makes it difficult to establish responsibility against the participant state extraterritorially. The African states‟ participation in the U.S program of extraordinary rendition and the creation of a similar approach among African states and other states have raised the question of the extraterritorial scope of the African Charter. Thus, the primary objective of this thesis is answering the question of when an African state is involved in extraordinary rendition activities and affects the lives of individuals outside its sovereign territory, how will it be responsible pursuant to the African Charter to which this African state is a party? It is true that the African Charter does not explicitly prohibit extraordinary rendition. But in order to answer the aforementioned question, the thesis analyses the African Charter and the jurisprudence of the African Commission. In addition, the paper makes analyses on the jurisprudence of international and regional human rights systems which it uses as „inspirational sources‟ for the interpretation and application of the African Charter in case of extraordinary rendition. Therefore, the thesis strongly argues that the notion of state obligation under the African Charter could be applied to extraordinary rendition which violates human rights in extraterritorial context. The paper also makes an analysis on the practice of extraordinary rendition in Africa. The role of the African Commission and the remedies available for victims of extraordinary rendition in the African human rights system are also dealt under this paper.

 

10 ግራ-ገብ ዜናዎች

1/ “የተርባይኖች መቀነስ በሚመነጨው ኃይል ላይ የሚያመጣው ለውጥ የለም” የህዳሴ ግድብ ዋና ሥራ አስኪያጅ

https://www.bbc.com/amharic/news-50045019

በዚህ ዜና እና “ብረታ ብረት ኮርፖሬሽን ተርባይን ማምረቻ ፋብሪካ ሊገነባ ነው /https://www.ethiopianreporter.com/article/7273/” በሚለው ዜና መካከል ልዩነት የለም። ሁለቱም ዜና አይን ያወጣ ያፈጠጠ ውሸት ነው። ይሄን ለማረጋገጥ ከሃይስኩል ዕውቀት በላይ አይጠይቅም። በዚህ አካሄድ በቅርቡ እነዚህን ዜናዎች እንሰማለን።

–መንግስት አንዱን ኩላሊታችንን ያወጣውና…”የአንድ ኩላሊት መቀነስ በጤና ላይ የሚያመጣው አንዳችም ጉዳት የለም ተባለ”

—መንግስት ካሉን አውሮፕላኖች ላይ ከወጪ አንጻር አንዱን ሞተር ያወጣውና.…”የአንድ ሞተር መውጣት በተሳፋሪዎች ደህንነት ላይ የሚያስከትለው አንዳችም ስጋት የለም ተባለ”

…በቅርቡ መከላከያ የተኩስ ልምምድ የሚያደርገው መሀል አዲስ አበባ ላይ ይሆናል። ከዛ ዜናው ይቀጥላል…”የተኩስ ልምምዱ በነዋሪዎች ላይ ምንም ዓይነት የደህንነት አያስከትልም ተባለ”

ዜናውን ሳነብ በርካታ መሀንዲሶች እሳት ጎርሰው..ለብሰው ፌስቡክን በፖስትና ኮሜንት ያጨናንቁታል ብዬ ገምቼ ነብር። በትክክል አልገመትኩም። በመቀጠል 3 አማራጭ ድምዳሜዎች ላይ ደርሻለው።

1/ የአገራችን መህንዲሶች ፌስ ቡክ አይጠቀሙም።

2/ ቢጠቀሙም ከራሳቸው ሙያ ይልቅ የሚመሰጡት በህግና የፍርድ ቤት ጉዳዮች ላይ ነው።

3/ ከስራቸው ባህርይ የተነሳ ሁሉም ኢንተርኔት የሌለበት ቦታ ፊልድ ወጥተው ዜናው ገና አልሰሙም።

ቢያንስ ቢያንስ “እንዴት?” ለሚለው ጥያቄ የሆነች ማብራሪያ ቢጤ ቢያክሉበት ኖሮ እኮ “የሶሻል” ተማሪዎችና ተመራቂዎች አርፈን እንቀምጥ ነበር። ለ”እንዴት?” በሚሰጠው ምላሽ ባለሞያዎች ሲከራከሩ እኛ ተመልካች እንሆናለን።

በአንድ ወቅት የመጨረሻ ዓመት የፊዚክስ የዩኒቨርስቲ ተማሪዎች በመምህራቸው አንድ ከባድ assignment ተሰጣቸው። መምህሩ ተማሪዎቹን በጣም ብዙ በጎች የተሰማሩበት የግጦሽ ቦታ ነበር ያመጣቸው። የተሰጣቸው assignment የፊዚክስ ዕውቀታቸውን ተጠቅመው የበጎቹን ቁጥር ፈጥኖ መናገር ነው። ሁሉም ተማሪዎች የሚይዙት የሚጨብጡት አጥተው ሲደናበሩ አንደኛው ተማሪ በቅጽበት እጁን አውጥቶ የበጎቹ ቁጥር ስንት እንደሆነ ተናገረ። “እንዴት አመጣኸው?” አሉት መምህሩ።

ተማሪውም በኩራት “እግራቸውን ቆጠርኩና ለአራት አካፈልኩት!!”

ሊሆን ይችላል። በበኩሌ በተማሪው መልስ መሳቅ ቢዳዳኝም አላደርገውም። ምክንያቱም ለ”እንዴት?” በሚሰጥ ምላሽ ከፊዚክስ ተመራቂ  በላይ አላውቅም።

“የተርባይኖች መቀነስ በሚመነጨው ኃይል ላይ የሚያመጣው ለውጥ የለም” የሚለው መግለጫ የፊዚክስ ተማሪውን ያክል እንኳን ማብራሪያ የለውም። በነገራችን ላይ ይሄን ዜና “ግራ-ገብ” ብቻ ሳይሆን “እጥፍ ግራ-ገብ” የሚያደርገው ሌላ ነገር አለ። ከወር በፊት /1 September 2019/ የዚህን ነገር ዳር-ዳርታ የሚያሳይ ዜና ሪፖርተር ጋዜጣ ላይ ተዘግቦ ነበር።

“ከህዳሴ ግድብ የኃይል ማመንጫ ጀኔሬተሮች ውስጥ አምስቱ ግድቡ ተጠናቆ ውኃ ከተሞላ በኋላ እንዲተከሉ ተወሰነ” /https://www.ethiopianreporter.com/index.php/article/16613?fbclid=IwAR19joanwxvgmtS-LWOgtJtfb2jxnCFqQbbTEzMIjBBcCI5Q0QZ7wS01caU/

በዜናው ላይ ካነበብኩት ጊዜ ጀምሮ አሁን ድረስ እያሳቀችኝ ያለች አንዲት አስተያየት አለች። ዜናው ይወርድ ይወርድና ሰባተኛ አንቀጽ ላይ “አንድ የኃይል ማመንጫን አቅም ያመነጫል በተባለው አጠቃላይ ሜጋ ዋት ኃይል የመለካት የተሳሳተ ግንዛቤ በኢትዮጵያ ውስጥ እንደተዛመተ የሚገልጹት ኢንጂነሩ…” ብላ ትቀጥላለች። ሲጀመር አብዛኛው ህብረተሰብ ስለ ሜጋ ዋት፤ የኃይል ማመንጫ፤ ኃይል መለካት .…ምኑን አውቆት ነው? “የተሳሳተ ግንዛቤ በኢትዮጵያ..” የተባለው? እንኳንስ “የተሳሳተ” እና ከነጭራሹ ከባለሞያው ውጭ ያለው ‘ኢትዮጵያ’ ምን ግንዛቤ አለውና ነው? ወይስ መሀንዲሶች ናቸው የተሳሳተ ግንዛቤ የያዙት? ደሞስ መቼ ነው ይሄ የተሳሳተ ግንዛቤ ሲንጸባረቅ የነበረው? “አንድ የኃይል ማመንጫን አቅም ያመነጫል በተባለው አጠቃላይ ሜጋ ዋት ኃይል የመለካት የተሳሳተ ግንዛቤ” ገና ለመጀመሪያ ጊዜ ከእሳቸው አፍ ነው የወጣው። ለምሳሌ ስለ deoxyribonucleic acid, nameplate capacity, Francis turbine-generators, capacity factor “የተሳሳተ ግንዛቤ በኢትዮጵያ” ሰምታችሁ ታውቃላችሁ? ግንዛቤው ራሱ የለም፤ ከጥቂት የመስኩ ባለሞያዎች ውጭ። ስለሆነም በቅጡ ግንዛቤ እንኳን በሌለበት “የተሳሳተ ግንዛቤ በኢትዮጵያ..” ብሎ መግለጫ መስጠት የተሳሳተ ብቻ ሳይሆን ሊበሏት ያሰቧትን ጅግራ..ዓይነት ነገር..ቀድሞም የታቀደበት ነገር መሆኑን ማሳያ ነው።

እስቲ አሁን ደግሞ ትንሽ መረጃ እንለዋወጥ

ስለ ህዳሴው ግድብ በአጠቃላይ እና አሁን እየተባለ ስላለው ነገር መነሻ ለማግኘት የሲቪል ግንባታውን የሚያከናውነው ሳሊኒ በድረ-ገጹ ላይ ስለ ፕሮጀክቱ ያሰፈረውን አጭር መረጃ /በተለይ MAIN TECHNICAL DATA/ ተመልክቱት። በድረ-ገጹ ላይ እንደሚነበበው፤

The project involves the construction of a main dam in Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC), with 2 power stations installed at the foot of the dam. The power stations are positioned on the right and left banks of the river and comprise 16 Francis turbines with a total installed power of 6,000 MW and estimated production of 15,000 GWh per year.

6000 / installed power/ እና 15,000 GWh per year / estimated production/ ምንድነው የሚያመለክቱት?

በዚህ ነጥብ ላይ U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) ለእኛ በሚገባን መልኩ U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) ጠቅሶ መልሱን ይሰጠናል።

በዚህ መሰረት Capacity / installed power/ ማለት The maximum output of electricity that a generator can produce under ideal conditions. Capacity levels are normally determined as a result of performance tests and allow utilities to project the maximum electricity load that a generator can support. Capacity is generally measured in megawatts or kilowatts.

በሌላ መልኩ Electricity generation /estimated production/ ማለት The amount of electricity that IS produced over a specific period of time እንደሆነ ይነግረናል።የዚህን ስሌትና አለካክ በተመለከተም ወደ የተወሳሰበ ቀመር ሳይገባ በአጭር ምሳሌ እንደሚከተለው ያስረዳናል።

consider a wind turbine with a capacity of 1.5 megawatts that is running at its maximum capacity for 2 hours. In this scenario, at the end of the second hour, the turbine would have generated 3 megawatt-hours of energy (i.e. 1.5 megawatts X 2 hours).

https://www.energy.gov/eere/articles/whats-difference-between-installed-capacity-and-electricity-generation

አሁን እየተነገረን ያለው ግድቡ ያመነጫል ተብሎ የተሰላው በዓመት በአማካይ 15760 ጊጋ ዋት (Gigawatt hours) የኢነርጂ (ኃይል) መጠን ላይ የተለወጠ ነገር እንደሌለ ነው።  አምስት ተርባይን ሲቀነስ የግድቡ Capacity / installed power/ 4700 MW ይሆናል። ስለሆነም በመግለጫው መሰረት 4700 MW ሆነ 6,000 MW 15,000 GWh per year / estimated production/ ይሰጣል እንደማለት ነው። ይሄኔ ነው “ዘይመስል ነገር!” ማለት።

በተጨማሪም የውሀ ሀይል ማመንጫ እንዴት እንደሚሰራ በአሜሪካ በሀይል እና የአየር ንብረት ላይ የመንግስትን ፖሊሲ በመቅረጽ፤ በማመንጭትና አንዳንዴም በማስለወጥ የሚታወቀውና ከተቋቋመ 50 ዓመት በላይ ከሆነው የሳይንቲስቶች ስብስብ The Union of Concerned Scientists ድረ-ገጽ ላይ How Hydroelectric Energy Works በሚል ከቀረበው ጽሁፍ አንዲት መስመር ላካፍላቹ። ቀሪውን ሊንኩን በመጠቀም አንብቡት።

In order to generate electricity from the kinetic energy in moving water, the water has to move with sufficient speed and volume to spin a propeller-like device called a turbine, which in turn rotates a generator to generate electricity.

https://www.ucsusa.org/resources/how-hydroelectric-energy-works

በተጨማሪ ደግሞ በሚከተለው ሊንክ ላይ ያለውን መረጃ አንብቡት።

http://www.wvic.com/content/how_hydropower_works.cfm

How Hydropower Works

Parts of a Hydroelectric Plant

Most conventional hydroelectric plants include four major components (see graphic below):

  1. Dam. Raises the water level of the river to create falling water. Also controls the flow of water. The reservoir that is formed is, in effect, stored energy.
  2. Turbine. The force of falling water pushing against the turbine’s blades causes the turbine to spin. A water turbine is much like a windmill, except the energy is provided by falling water instead of wind. The turbine converts the kinetic energy of falling water into mechanical energy.
  3. Generator. Connected to the turbine by shafts and possibly gears so when the turbine spins it causes the generator to spin also. Converts the mechanical energy from the turbine into electric energy. Generators in hydropower plants work just like the generators in other types of power plants.
  4. Transmission lines. Conduct electricity from the hydropower plant to homes and business.

በላይኛው መረጃ ላይ በመንተራስ “ብዙ ጀነሬተር ብንደርድር…” በሚል የቀረበውን ማብራሪያ መዳኘት አይከብድም።

ከመግለጫው በጣም አሳሳቢው ክፍል የተርባይን እና ጄኔሬተር ቁጥር በምን እንደሚወሰን የሚያወሳው ሙያዊ ትንተና ነው። እንደሚከተለው ይነበባል።

“የተርባይን እና ጄነሬተር ቁጥር የሚወሰነው፤ ግድቡ በሚይዘው የውሃ መጠን፣ ውሃው ከምን ያክል ከፍታ ላይ በምን ያክል ፍጥነት ተርባይኑን ይመታል፣ የኃይል ፍላጎት፣ ኢኮኖሚያዊ አዋጭነቱ እና የመሳሰሉት ላይ ነው ይላሉ”

ጭራሽ ግድቡ የሚይዘው የውሀ መጠን ሳይታወቅ ነው ወደ ግንባታ የተገባው? ውሃው ከምን ያክል ከፍታ ላይ በምን ያክል ፍጥነት ተርባይኑን እንደሚመታውም ገና እርግጠኛ አይደላችሁም? የኃይል ፍላጎት እና ኢኮኖሚያዊ አዋጭነቱን በተመለከተም You have no idea?

ጎበዝ እዚህ ላይ ይበቃል። እዛው civil code ምናምን ባገላብጥ ይሻላል። ስለ ግድቡ ሰፋ ያለ መረጃ ከፈለጋችሁ ዊኪፒዲያን ጎብኙት። /https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Ethiopian_Renaissance_Dam/

2/ ኢትዮጵያ የኒውክሌር ቴክኖሎጂን የዜጎችን ደህንነት በጠበቀ መልኩ እየተጠቀመችበት መሆኑ ተገለፀ

http://tiny.cc/iz0kez

የኑውክሌር ቴክኖሎጂ? እንዴት ደስ ይላል። የኑክሌር ቴክኖሎጂ መጠቀም ከቻልን ከአሁን በኋላ “ኋላ ቀር” የሚለው ቅጥያ ይፋቅልናል። ከድህነት ለመውጣትም ረጅም ጊዜ አይፈጅብንም።

በዚህ ዜና ብዙዎች እንደኔ ተደስተዋል። ሌሎች መናፍቃን ደግሞ ኢትዮጵያ የኑክሌር መሳሪያ እንዳላት ጠርጥረዋል።

ግን ግን ምንድነው የኒውክሌር ቴክኖሎጂን መጠቀም? የዜናው ይዘት ለዚህ መልስ አይሰጥም። ትንሽ ፍንጭ የምትሰጥ ዓረፍተ ነገር ግን አለች። “የኢትዮጵያ ጨረራ መከላከል ባለስልጣን ዋና ዳይሬክተር ሰለሞን ጌታቸው ቴክኖሎጂውን ለካንስር ህክምና፤ ለቆላ ዝንብ ማምከኛ እና ለመንገድ ስራ በአግባቡ እየተጠቀመችበት መሆኑን ተናግረዋል፡፡” ልክ ነው፤ የኑክሌር ቴክኖሎጂ በእነዚህ ብቻ ሳይሆን በግብርና እንዲሁም በምግብ ማምረት ሂደት ጥቅም ላይ ይውላል። በዚህ ረገድ በጣም ተጠቃሽ “የጭስ መለያ” /smoke detector/ ነው። ይህንን ከዜናው ጋር አዛምዱት፤ እንበልና smoke detector በአገራችን ህንጻዎችና መኖሪያ ቤቶች ላይ ቢገጠም መባል ያለበት “ኢትዮጵያ የኑክሌር ቴክኖሎጂን እየተጠቀመችበት መሆኑ ተገለፀ” ነው? በፍጹም!

መባል የነበረበት፤

“ኢትዮጵያ የኑክሌር ቴክኖሎጂ የሚጠቀሙ ምርቶች እየተጠቀመች መሆኑ ተገለፀ”

3/ የሴቶችን ተሳትፎና ተጠቃሚነት ማረጋገጥ ቸርነት ሳይሆን ህልውና ነው ተባለ

http://www.dbu.edu.et/index.php/latest/news/2-dbu-articles/181-2019-03-13-06-35-21

ይሄ የተባለው በሴቶች ቀን ነው። የህልውና ጉዳይ በሆነ ጉዳይ ላይ በየዓመቱ የሴቶች ቀን እስኪመጣ መጠበቅ ለምን አስፈለገ? ማህበራዊ ችግሮች በተነሳሽነትና ቁርጠኝነት ብቻ አይፈቱም። ትኩረት ለማግኘት “ህልውና” ስለተባለ ጠብ የሚል ለውጥ አይመጣም። ሁሉም ነገር  የህልውና ጉዳይ ከሆነ “ህልውና” ትርጉም ያጣል።

ኮንዶሚኒየም ህልውና ነው ተባለ፡ ትራንፖርት ህልውና መሆኑ ተነገረ፤ የከተማ ጽዳት ህልውና መሆኑ ተነገረ…በዚህ አያያዝ በቀጣይ የምንሰማቸው ዜማዎች፤

Samsung S10 ህልውና ነው ተባለ

ዱባይ ደርሶ መምጣት ህልውና መሆኑ ተገለጸ

ቪትዝ መኪና ህልውና መሆኑ ተነገረ..

4/ የኢትዮጵያ የጤና መድህን ኤጀንሲ የተቀናጀ ድጋፋዊ ጉብኝት ሊያደርግ መሆኑ ተገለጸ

https://ehia.gov.et/node/306

“የኢትዮጵያ የጤና መድህን ኤጀንሲ ዋናው መስሪያ ቤት ሀላፊዎችና የሚመለከታቸው ባለሞያዎች የኤጀንሲው ቅርንጫፍ ጽ/ቤት ስራ አስኪያጆች የክልል ጤና ቢሮ አሰተባባሪዎች የዞንና የወረዳ ማህበረሰብ አቀፍ ጤና መድህን አስተባባሪዎች እንዲሁም ከክሊንተን ሄልዝ ኢኒሸቲቭ የተውጣጡ ባለሞያዎችን ያሳተፈ በዘጠኝ ቡድን በመደራጀት ከታህሳስ 27/2011 ጀምሮ በአራቱ ክልሎች የሚገኙ የጤና መድህን ዝግጅት ስራዎችን ለመደገፍ እንደሚንቀሳቀስ ታውቋል፡፡”

ምንድነው “ድጋፋዊ ጉብኝት?” እየዞሩ “አይዟችሁ! በርቱ!” ሊሉ ነው?

5/ የመብራት ፈረቃው ሰኔ 30 ድረስም ላይቆይ ይችላል ተባለ

http://tiny.cc/g90kez

“በመላው ሀገሪቱ በተከሰተው የሃይል እጥረት ምክንያት የመብራት አገልግሎት በፈረቃ መሰጠት መጀመሩ ይታወሳል፡፡ ይህንንም ተከትሎ ወቅቱ ክረምት በመሆኑ ግድቦች ይሞላሉ ተብሎ ስለሚታመን እስከ ሰኔ 30 ድረስ ላይቆይም እንደሚችልና መብራት በመደበኛነት የ24 ሰአት አገልግሎት ሊሰጥ እንደሚችል አቶ ሰለሞን ደሳለኝ የኢትዮጵያ ኤሌትሪክ ኃይል አገልግሎት ድሬዳዋ ቅርንጫፍ ፅ/ቤት የህዝብ ግንኙነት ኃላፊ ገልፀዋል፡፡”

ብድር ወስደህ አበዳሪው “በአንድ ወር ጊዜ ውስጥ መልስልኝ! ከአንድ ወር በላይ አልታገስህም” ሲልህ ” ኧረ! አንድ ወር ድረስም አይቆይም! በእኔ ተማመን” ትልና ታረጋጋዋለህ። /ልቦናህ እያወቀው…የገቢ ምንጭ እንደሌለህ!/

የኃላፊውና የተበዳሪው ምላሽ አንድ አይነት ነው። “ይሞላሉ ተብሎ ስለሚታመን..!”—ምንም ዓይነት የሜትሮሎጂ መረጃ የለም እኮ!

6/ መልካም እሴቶች ይዳብሩ ተባለ

http://tiny.cc/wc1kez

ይዳብሩዋ ታዲያ! ማን አይዳብሩ አለ? አይዳብሩ የሚል ደፋር ካለ ዜና ነው። “ይዳብሩ ተባለ” ግን ጭራሽ ዜና አይደለም።

7/ የቅድመ መደበኛ መምህራንን አቅም መገንባት ወሳኝ ነው ተባለ

http://tiny.cc/sf1kez

ይሄንን ገና ያልተወለደ ልጅም ጠንቅቆ ያውቃል። አቅም መገንባት ሲጀመር ዜና ይሆናል። እስከዛው ድረስ ግን.…አይባልም…ዜና አይሰራለትም።

8/ ህብርተሰቡ የፓልም ዘይትን በተመጠነ መልኩ መጠቀም እንደሚገባው የኢትዮጵያ ህብርተሰብ ጤና ኢንስቲትዩት አሳሰበ

http://tiny.cc/kq1kez

ሙሉ ዜናው እንደሚከተለው ይነበባል።

“አዲስ አበባ፣ ሰኔ 13፣ 2011 (ኤፍ.ቢ.ሲ) ህብርተሰቡ ለምግብነት የሚጠቀመውን የፓልም ዘይት በተመጠነ መልኩ መጠቀም እንደሚገባው የኢትዮጵያ ህብርተሰብ ጤና ኢንስቲትዩት አሳሰበ።

ኢንስቲትዩቱ ዛሬ በሰጠው መግለጫ ከዚህ ቀደም ከውጭ የሚገባውን ፓልም ዘይት እና ሌሎች በሀገሪቱ የሚመርቱ ዘይቶች ደርጃቸውን ጠብቀው እንዲመርቱ በሚል የጥናት ውጤት ማሳወቁን አስታውቋል።

ሆኖም በወቅቱ ህብርተሰቡ ጋር የደርሰው መርጃ መደናገርን መፍጠሩን ገልጾ፥ ህብርተሰቡ የፓልም ዘይትን እንዳይጠቀም ሳይሆን በተመጠነ ምልኩ እንዲጠቀም ነው መልዕክቴን ያስተላለፍኩት ብሏል።

በቀጣይም ከአጠቃቀም ጋር ተያይዞ ሊደርጉ ይገባል ያላቸውን ጥንቃቄዎችን ገልጿል።

በተለይም ሰውነት ከሚያቃጥለው በላይ ይህንን ዘይት ሰዎች የሚጠቀሙ ከሆነ የደም ቧንቧ ላይ እየተጋገረ እንደሚመጣ ያነሳው ተቋሙ፥ አጠቃቀማችን የተመጠነ መሆን አለበት ሲል አሳስቧል”

በተመጠነ? ለአምስት ሰው የሚበቃ ሽሮ ለማዘጋጀት ስንት ማንኪያ ፓልም ዘይት እንጠቀም? “በተለይም ሰውነት ከሚያቃጥለው በላይ.…???” ሰውነቴ የሚያቃጥለው ፓልም ዘይት ምን ያህል ነው?

ይልቅ እናንተም ከሚያቃጥለን በላይ መግለጫ ባትሰጡን? ማለቴ..እስቲ የተመጠነ አርጉት

9/ ኢትዮጵያ በመጪው ታህሳስ ወር መጀመሪያ የራሷን ሳተላይት እንደምታመጥቅ ተነገረ

https://shegerfm.com/2013-05-11-16-19-47/5425-ethiopia-to-launch-satellite-in-the-coming-tahsas

ይኼኛውም ልክ እንደ “ኒውክሌር ቴክኖሎጂ..” ደስታችሁን ያንረውና ወደ ዝርዝሩ ስትገቡ..

“…ሙሉ ወጪዋ በቻይና መንግስት የተሸፈነው ሳተላይቷ ወደ ህዋ የምትመጥቀው ከቻይና ምድር ነው”

ለኢትዮጵያ ጥቅም የምትውል ሳተላይት ወደ ህዋ መምጠቋ እስየው ነው። ግን ዜናው በእንዲህ መልኩ አስተካክሉት።

“ቻይና ለኢትዮጵያ ጥቅም የምትውል ሳተላይት በራሷ ቴክኖሎጂና ወጪ ሰርታ እንደምታመጥቅላት ተነገረ።”

10 /የክረምቱ ዝናብ ለሳምንታት ከተለመደው በላይ ተጠናክሮ ስለሚቀጥል ዜጎች ጥንቃቄ እንዲያደርጉ ማሳሰቢያ ተሰጠ

https://amharic.voanews.com/a/ethiopia-meteorology-forcast-08-26-10-101594063/1461047.html

“የኢትዮጵያ ሚቲዮሮሎጂ ኤጀንሲ ዋና ዲሬክተር አቶ ኪዳኔ አሰፋ የዚህ ክረምት የዝናብ ሁኔታ ከመደኛው ከፍ ያለ መሆኑን ገልፀው ሕዝቡ ከባድ ዝናብና ጎርፍ፣ በገደላማ አካባቢ የሚኖረውም ሰው የመሬት መንሸራተት እንደሚኖር አውቆ ሕይወቱን፣ ቤተሰቡን፣ እንስሣቱንና ንብረቱን ከአደጋ መጠበቅ እንዲችል በእንቅስቃሴው ሁሉ ጥንቃቄ እንዲያደርግ አሣስበዋል፡፡

ዋና ዳይሬክተሩ በማከልም ምንም እንኳ እንኳ ኤጀንሲያቸው ስፋት ያላቸውንና ተአማኒነታቸውም ከፍተኛ የሆነ የቅድሚያ ማስጠንቀቂያ መረጃዎችን ቢሰጥም በአካባቢ የተወሰኑ ልዩ ትንበያዎችን ለማድረግ ግን የአቅም ውሱንነት እንዳለው ገልፀዋል፡፡”

ይሄ ጥንቆላ ነው። ሳይንስም ሜትሮሎጂም አይደለም። “…በአካባቢ የተወሰኑ ልዩ ትንበያዎችን ለማድረግ ግን የአቅም ውሱንነት እንዳለው ገልፀዋል።” የእናንተ ሜትሮሎጂ “ምስራቅ፤ ምዕራብ፤ ደቡብ፤ ሰሜን” ብሎ ነው የሚያሳየው። ደግሞስ ቦታውን ካላወቃችሁት ምን አርጉ ነው? እንዴት እንጠንቀቅ? በጊዜ ወደ ቤታችን እንግባ? ሰፈር እንቀይር?

‘የአስተዳደር ህግ መግቢያ’ Now available on Google Play- free download

የአስተዳደር ህግ መግቢያ One of my unpublished books is now available as an android app on Google Play.

Click HERE to download and install the app

You can also enter the search term ‘Ethiopian Administrative Law’ on Google Play Store.

 

 

 

 

 

Get more Ethiopian law apps on the following links

 

The Revised Family Code of Ethiopia

 

 

Criminal Procedure code of Ethiopia

 

 

በላ ልበልሃ: የጠበቃ ቀልዶችና የችሎት ገጠመኞች

 

 

 

የአስተዳደር ህግ መግቢያ

 

 

 

 

 

አሠሪና ሠራተኛ ህግ

The virtues of true decentralization – Addis Standard

Source: Op:Ed: The virtues of true decentralization – Addis Standard

Belachew Mekuria, PhD, For Addis Standard

Addis Abeba, June 18/2019 – In an earlier piece for AS, I highlighted the need for empowered regional states in our federal arrangement so as to enable us ‘establish and sustain one economic community.’ The praxis of our federalism is hardly in sync with the constitutional promises of a truly self-governing structures in social, economic and political dimensions. The role of regional governments in looking after the socio-economic and political affairs of their people is dashed aside to the margins rendering them dependent on the ‘almighty’ center that, under the guise of building single economic community, controls the formulation and implementation of the country’s policies spanning every aspect of the body politic. I intend to briefly explain why true decentralization is one of the many long overdue reforms that the country ought to address.

Centralized Economy, Decentralized Poverty

It is desirable to pursue economic policies that embrace local conditions and endeavor to meet the needs of the people who are not only poor, but in relative terms, are getting poorer by the day. Creation of single economic community is excessively referenced to legitimize the central control of economic policy making that is supported by a relatively over-capacitated central bureaucracy. House of Federation has the mandate to propose laws that help establish and sustain one economic community for enactment by the House of Peoples’ Representatives. While an attempt is made to institutionalize a centralized economic policy making, implementation and monitoring infrastructure, it has not led to an overall improvement in well-being and livelihoods. As a result, the capacity to design sound policies for accelerated economic growth at regional level is highly undermined; poverty still remains ubiquitous; some experiencing it more than others.

Though there are a number of areas that call for genuine decentralization, I limit the discussions to three key areas for devolution of power to the respective regions having profound implication on empowering members of the federation.

Click HERE to read the remaining story.

Safety manual for public servants Against poignant prosecutions|Yohannes Woldegebriel in response to የወንጀል ህግ አንቀጽ 23

In response to my previous post titled የወንጀል ህግ አንቀጽ 23 -የዐቃቤ ህግ የወንጀል ተጠያቂነት (ምርጥ የሰበር ውሳኔ) Yohannes Woldegebriel who was the applicant in the cassation decision sent me an email comment and the following article to be posted on this blog.

What follows is the full content of his comment and an article he requested to be posted.

Yohannes Woldegebriel wordpress@chilot.me via wpdatacenter.com 
to me

 Name: Yohannes Woldegebriel

Email: johnwaa@hotmail.com

Website: 

Comment: Dear Sir, 
I have recently come across cassation court decision that has been deliberately withheld, for good or bad reason, unpublished in its official publication book. By the way the Federal Ethics and Anti Corruption Commission also never published in its official publication of cases it has been pursuing as if it was not responsible for my 5 years long marathon trial and vengeful prosecution.
While I am happy that you published my case but I sincerely believe that although the court decision help to resolve the case, I would argue that it contributed little in the development of the jurisprudence of the constituent element of a crime as you tried to imply in your posting. I would rather advice you to publish in your website the attached article that I prepared while I was behind bar. In preparing this article I was and still am convinced that in the kind of cases I have passed through it is wasteful to present evidences, cite legal provisions, make arguments, and wait for the judge ruling. As a pragmatic lawyer that has tested the grim reality of the judiciary of the regime, I want to provide fellow public servants with the attached “legal advices” attached next to my cassation court decision case.
I hope you will find it interesting to you and your readers!

Safety manual for public servants Against poignant prosecutions

(By Yohannes Woldegebriel)

One may try to understand the set of principles that guides all organs of our criminal justice administration to enforce the rule of law and ethics in public service from official reports, refined researches mainly focusing on theoretical legal analysis of few selected cases or lectures by “distinguished” officials of the respective bodies. The true nature of our criminal justice administration of alleged breaches of law or ethics by indicted public servants is, however, manifestly noticed in prisons. Extravagant meetings, conferences or occasional progress reports and media dramas help only to disguise their inherent ugly face.

Over the past few years, there has been much talk on justice reform, court and prosecution offices business process re-engineering (BPR), trial by video conferencing, providing case information through computer touch screen, prosecution information system (PIS), promoting ethics in justice sector and whatnot. Nevertheless, the condition and quality of justice provided by our courts and prosecution offices has remained steadily deteriorated.

What is more our officials in the justice sector always cry that the sector suffers from lack of predictability. Predictability is however, the hallmark of our criminal justice administration not in the proper sense a lawyer understand the word but in the opposite. Again, our prisons offer inexhaustible data to disprove fictions from realities.

If you are a self-respecting and motivated public servant honestly serving your people by enforcing nothing but the law, to protect public and government interests, you should be almost certainly sure to fall one day, under the trap of a network of unscrupulous government officials, supposedly empowered to represent and defend public interests. This is because, what the law requires you to do invariably stand at loggerhead with or directly affect the personal or group interest of such officials.

You may rely on your sincerity, truth, the law and legal institutions, free conscience, personal confidence or even hope the protection of honest higher officials. But all these are not guarantees to save you from arrest, detention, fake charges, prolonged detention pointless court litigation, lose of earning, family break up, and last but not least media prejudices and public humiliations.

Here is a pattern of predictable ordeals experienced by a victimized public servant.

The stage play begins from a concocted allegations leveled by your accuser, normally a government official or an institution with some previous grudge, who often launch the attack from nothing or by creating a mountain out of mole. Any person considering himself to be aggrieved by your official decision could become a complainant and valuable witness.

You will be taken in to police custody and locked up with no opportunity to explain your version of the case to any independent organ. If you happen to be a public figure, you will be prone to media prejudices and humiliations. Our infant media, which takes the statement of your case. As a result, you will be saddled with the long and formidable challenge of removing prejudices first before obtaining fair hearing to disprove the allegations.

Your burden to show your innocence will be even more difficult if you were an actor in the machinery of justice such as courts or public prosecution offices and has been carrying out your tasks sticking to nothing but to law, professional ethics and the ideal of justice. Because, due to your acts, you earn innumerable foes than friends. You may question why more rivals? Whether we like it or not, this is the grim reality of our generation and our time. You cannot succeed or prevail abruptly merely because you compete fairly, work hard, comply with the rules of the game, conform to professional standards and ethical norms.

After you are taken to police custody, the mockery resume by “respecting” your constitutional right for court appearance within 48 hours along with a long list of fake allegations enough to persuade the judge to grant an order of remand in custody. Here, you must always be sure that the judge will generously and unquestioningly grant 14 days permit with possible renewal on each request providing enough opportunity to your accuser to organize his concocted allegations to look truthful and convincing in the eyes of all believing laity.

Having completed organizing the investigation report on fake allegations, next, you must be certain that you will be thrown to jail for 15 days pending the preparation and filing of creative charges to court. On the expiry of the 15th day, you will appear before the court, under escort, to receive worthless but honeycombed charges that are legal cloaks to conceal all wicked conspiracies and manoeuvrings calculated to lock you behind prison doors. With this, the famous judicial stage play begins.

As to your bail right, you must be ready to face the most boring and shameless rhetoric of your accuser, citing the law stated on the charge entailing the harshest punishment or even your alleged official capacity to pervert the judicial process of the fake allegation if you are bailed out and thus plead for the denial of bail. Here again, you should predict to swallow the unpalatable fact that an automatic ruling will be issued by the court in favour of your accuser regardless of the merit of the case.

Now that the fake allegation has matured in to “a legal case”, all actors in the famous judicial stage play will become comfortable enough to tender adjournments after adjournment to receive your submission and evidence for pre-trial hearings and ruling, regular prosecution and defense evidences, statements, arguments, addresses and whatnot. The judicial calendars are the best instrument of reprisal to your accuser and to hush out your voice.

In fact, to the delight of your accuser, courts issue prolonged adjournments to turn your case stale or unimportant to any interested follower and thus entirely frustrating your attempt to seek justice and vindicate your right. If you attempt to lodge administrative appeal to higher officials, your appeal will surely remain unnoticed or you will be guaranteed that the executive will not “interfere” on judicial businesses.

Fellow public servants!

You may come out a winner and justice and truth may prevail eventually. But you must be certain to serve a punishment before you are found guilty, convicted and sentenced. You must not hope to redress the moral and material damage you sustain before you are completely perished.

You might think that every body including judges and prosecutors would presume you innocent as required by the constitution. But you will find that this constitutional requirement is dishonored and betrayed by the very officials empowered to enforce it. Who else could honour the mandatory provision of the constitution that is being disparaged by judges and prosecutors? Not single evidence submitted to prove your absolute innocence will be considered until after the prosecutor and the judge comfortably remove the doubt or pretended doubt of your criminal involvement. No other official would consider your case until your suffering reach utter frustration either.

Finally it remains to me to suggest what code of conduct must guide a public servant to escape the deliberately inflicted trauma by actors of the organs of our criminal justice administration. For those who wish to stick to and uphold legality, loyalty, honesty, high civic responsibility, fairness, justice, and free conscience it is advisable to adhere to the following principles.

1. Shut up your mouth even if you face the temptation to cry out when public or government properties or interests are endangered.

2. Do not decide on any issue that comes to your official attention.

3. Do not exercise your official discretionary power even if your failure might cause loses on state and public interests.

4. Avoid any involvement in any major decision that protect public and government interests but threatens the interests of affluent individuals.

5. Keep low profile or less vocal to promote the protection of public or state interests.
6. Do not argue firmly on cases that involve affluent persons.