የአስተዳደራዊ ድንጋጌዎች ህጋዊነትና ህገ መንግስታዊነት

ማህበራዊና ኢኮኖሚያዊ ችግር ሲፈጠር መፍትሔ የመሻት ቀዳሚ ኃላፊነት የተጣለባቸው በየዘርፉ የተቋቋሙ የአስተዳደር መ/ቤቶች ናቸው፡፡ ከትምህርት አሰጣጥ ወይም ጋር ጥራት ጋር የተያያዘ ወይም በከፍተኛ ትምህርት ተቋማት ውስጥ ችግር ሲከሰት የትምህርት ሚኒስቴር እንቅስቃሴ ይጀምራል፡፡ በጉምሩክ ህግ አፈጻጸም አቤቱታዎች ሲጎርፉ የገቢዎችና ጉምሩክ ባለስልጣን መፍትሔ ያፈላልጋል፡፡ በግንባታ ላይ የተሰማሩ ሠራተኞች ጉዳት ሲደርስባቸው የሠራተኛ ማህበራዊ ጉዳይ ሚኒስቴር የሥራ ላይ አደጋዎች እንዳይከሰቱ ትኩረት ሰጥቶ ስራ ይጀምራል፡፡ ችግሮችን ለመቅፍ መላ መዘየድ ችግር የለውም፤  እንዲያውም ይበረታታል፡፡

ይሁን እንጂ በአንድ አገር ውስጥ በየጊዜው የሚፈጠሩ ችግሮች ሊቀረፉ የሚገባው በህግና በህገ መንግስት ማዕቀፍ ውስጥ ነው፡፡ ከፊል ጉዳዮች የተወካዮች ም/ቤትን ጣልቃ ገብነት ይሻሉ፡፡ የአስተዳደር መ/ቤቶች ችግር ፈቺነት አቅም በህግ ከተፈቀደላቸው ስልጣን በላይ ሊለጠጥ አይችልም፡፡ አዋጅ ሊመልሰው የሚገባውን መመሪያ ከቀደመው መ/ቤቶች ችግር ፈቺ መሆናቸው ቀርቶ ችግር ፈጣሪ ይሆናሉ፡፡ የአስተዳደር ድንጋጌዎች መመዘኛ አስፈላጊነትና ጠቀሜታ ብቻ ሳይሆን በዋናነት ህጋዊነት ነው፡፡ የቄሳርን ለቄሳር እንዲሉ ተወካዮች ሊመክሩበትና ሊፈቱት የሚገባውን ችግር ተሿሚዎች በመመሪያ ለመቅረፍ መሽቀዳደም የለባቸውም፡፡ የሚከተለው አጭር ዳሰሳ መመሪያ እና ደንብ እያስከተሉት ያለውን የህጋዊነትና ህገ መንግስታዊነት አደጋ በአጭሩ ያስቃኛል፡፡

 1. የከፍተኛ ትምህርት ተቋማት የአምልኮ ስርዓት

በትምህርት ተቋማት የአምልኮ ስርዓትን በሚመለከት የትምህርት ሚኒስቴር በ2000 ዓ.ም. መመሪያ አውጥቷል፡፡[1] መመሪያው ከመዋዕለ ህጻናት እስከ ዩኒቨርስቲዎችና ኮሌጆች ድረስ በሁሉም የትምህርት ተቋማት ተፈጻሚ የሚሆነውን የአምልኮ፣ የአለባበስ እና የአመጋገብ ስርዓት ይደነግጋል፡፡ በአንቀጽ 6.2 እስከ 6.6 ድረስ ከተፈቀዱና ከተከለከሉ ተግባራት መካከል እንደ ቅደም ተከተሉ የሚከተሉት ይገኙበታል፡፡

  • 2 የተማሪ ደንብ ልብስ በማያስፈልጋቸው የከፍተኛ ትምህርት ተቋማት እንደሁኔታው በወርክሾፕ፣ በላቦራቶሪ፣ ወይም በህክምና ትምህርት ተቋማት ሙያው ወይም ስልጣናው የሚፈልገው አይነትና የአንዱን ወይም የሌላውን እምነት የማይጋፋ የአለባበስ ስርዓት መከበር ይኖርበታል፡፡
  • 3 የእስልምና እምነት ተከታይ ሴት ተማሪዎች ከዩኒፎርም ጋር የሚመሳሰል “ሂጃብ” ማድረግ ይችላሉ፤ ከሂጃብ በቀር ሙሉ ጥቁር ልብስ ሙሉ በሙሉ ፊትንም ጨምሮ የሚሸፍን ወይም “ኒቃብ” በትምህርት ተቋማት መልበስ አይፈቀድም፡፡
  • 4 የክርስትና እምነት ተከታይ መነኮሳት፤ መነኮሳያይት እና ካህናት እንዲሁም የእስልምና ተከታይ ሼኮች ብቻ በትምህርት ተቋማት ቆብ ሊያደርጉ ወይም ሻሽ ሊጠመጥሙ ይችላሉ፡፡
  • 5 በተራ ቁጥር 6.2፤ 6.3፤ 6.4 የተጠቀሱት እንደተጠበቁ ሆነው፤ የትምህርት ተቋማት በሚያዘጋጁት ክብረ በዓል ወይም ተመሳሳይ ጉዳዮች ምክንያት በተቋሙ አስተዳደር ሃይማኖታዊ አለባበሶች ካልተፈቀዱ በስተቀር በማንኛውም መልኩ የማንኛውንም የሃይማኖት የአለባበስ ስርዓት በትምህርት ተቋማት መልበስ አይፈቀድም፡፡
  • 6 በተራ ቁጥር 6.2፤ 6.3፤ 6.4 የተጠቀሱት እንደተጠበቁ ሆነው፤ በተለየ ሁኔታ የትምህርት ተቋሙ አስተዳደር (በሀዘን፣ በህመም ወዘተ) ከሚፈቅደው በስተቀር ተማሪዎች በመማሪያ ክፍል ውስጥ ነጠላ፣ ጋቢ ወዘተ… መልበስ ሻሽ መጠምጠምና ቆብ ማድረግ የተከለከለ ነው፡፡

የትምህርት ሚኒስቴር መመሪያውን ለማውጣት የስልጣኑን ምንጭ በጊዜው ፀንቶ የነበረውን የኢትዮዽያ ፌደራላዊ ዲሞከራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ አስፈፃሚ አካላትን ስልጣንና ተግባር ለመወሰን የወጣ አዋጅ ቁ. 471/1998 እንደሆነ ይጠቅሳል፡፡ በአዋጁ አንቀጽ 14 የትምህር ሚኒስቴር የሚከተሉት ስልጣንና ተግባራት ተሰጥቶታል፡፡

  1. የትምህርት ስልጠና ስታንዳርድ ያወጣል፡፡ ሥራ ላይ መዋሉንም ያረጋግጣል፡፡
  2. የዚህ አንቀጽ ንዑስ አንቀጽ 1 አጠቃላይ አነጋገር እንደተጠበቀ ሆኖ፣

ሀ) አጠቃላይ የስርዓተ ትምህርት ማእቀፍ ያዘጋጃል፡፡

ለ) ለአንደኛና ሁለተኛ ደረጃ መምህራን አነስተኛውን የትምህርት ብቃት መለኪያ ያወጣል፡፡

ሐ) በሙያና ቴክኒክ ዘርፍ የሙያ ስልጠና ደረጃና የብቃት ማረጋገጫ ደረጃ ያወጣል፡፡

መ) የከፍተኛ ትምህርት ተቋማት ሊያሟሉ የሚገባቸውን አነስተኛውን ደረጃ ያወጣል፡፡

  1. የከፍተኛ የትምህርት ተቋማትን ያቋቁማል፣ ያስፋፋል፤ ዕውቅና ይሰጣል፣ ጥራትና አግባብነት ያለው ትምህርት መስጠታቸውን ይቆጣጠራል፡፡
  2. ትምህርትና ስልጠናን በተመለከተ አገራዊ የአህዝቦት (በእንግሊዝኛው ቅጂ ‘popularization’) ተግባሮችን ያከናውናል፡፡

ከላይ የተዘረዘሩት ስልጣንና ተግባራት መመሪያውን ለማውጣት ስልጣን እንደሚያጎናጽፉ ድምዳሜ ከመያዙ በፊት አንድ መሰረታዊ ነጥብ መነሳት ይኖርበታል፡፡ ይኸውም፤ ማንኛውም መ/ቤት ከተቋምነቱ ወይም ከአጠቃላይ ስልጣንና ተግባራቱ የመነጨ መመሪያ የመደንገግ ስልጣን (inherent rulemaking power) የለውም፡፡ እያንዳንዱ ተቋም የስልጣኑ ምንጭ የተወካዮች ም/ቤት ውክልና እንደሆነ መቼም መዘንጋት የለበትም፡፡ የትምህርት ሚኒስቴር ሊጠቅስ የሚገባው ውክልና የሰጠውን የህግ ድንጋጌ ነበር፡፡ ስለሆነም ውክልና በሌለበት በትምህርት ተቋማት የአምልኮ ስርዓትን በሚመለከት መመሪያ መደንገግ ከስልጣን በላይ የሆነ ተግባር በመሆኑ መመሪያው የህጋዊነት መስፈርት አያሟላም፡፡

በተጨማሪም የአዋጅ ቁ. 471/1998 አንቀጽ 14 ድንጋጌ ይዘት የአምልኮ ስርዓት በትምህርት ሚኒስቴር እንዲወሰን አይፈቅድም፡፡ ይህ እንደተጠበቀ ሆኖ መመሪያው በክልል መንግስታት ሊወሰን የሚገባውን ጉዳይ ጭምር አካቷል፡፡ በመመሪያው የትርጓሜ ክፍል የትምህርት ተቋማት የተባሉት ከመዋዕለ ህጻናት እስከ ዩኒቨርስቲ ድረስ ያሉትን በሙሉ ያጠቃልላል፡፡ የሕዝብ ትምህርት ቤቶችን አመራርና አስተዳደር፣ የትምህርት አሰጣጥ፣ የመምህራን አቀጣጠርና አስተዳደር በተመለከተ የትምህርት ሚኒስቴር ስልጣን የትምህርት ቤቶችን አመራርና አስተዳደር ለማጠናከር በወጣ (ማሻሻያ) አዋጅ ቁ. 217/1992 አንቀጽ 1 ተሽሮ ለብሔራዊ ክልላዊ መንግስታት እና የአዲስ አበባና ድሬዳዋ መስተዳድሮች ተላልፏል፡፡ በእነዚህ ትምህርት ቤቶች የአምልኮ ስርዓቱን በተመለከተ በህግ መወሰን/ያለመወሰን ስልጣኑም የእነዚህ አካላት ነው፡፡

 2. የገቢዎችና ጉምሩክ ባለስልጣን ሠራተኞች አስተዳዳር

ፍትህ የማግኘት መብትን የሚደነግገው የኢ.ፌ.ዲ.ሪ. ህገ መንግስት አንቀፅ 37/1/ እንደሚከተለው ይነበባል፡፡

ማንኛውም ሰው በፍርድ ሊወሰን የሚገባውን ጉዳይ ለፍርድ ቤት ወይም ለሌላ በህግ የዳኝነት ስልጣን ለተሰጠው አካል የማቅረብና ውሳኔ ወይም ፍርድ የማግኘት መብት አለው፡፡

የኢትዮጵያ ገቢዎችና ጉምሩክ ባለስልጣን ሰራተኞች አስተዳደር የሚኒስትሮች ምክር ቤት ደንብ ቁጥር 155/2000 በልዩ ሁኔታ ሰራተኞችን ማሰናበትን በተመለከተ በአንቀጽ 37 እንደሚከተለው ደንግጓል፡፡

1) በዚህ ደንብ በሌላ ሁኔታ የተደነገገው ቢኖርም ዋና ዳይሬክተሩ በሙስና የተጠረጠረንና እምነት ያጣበትን ሰራተኛ መደበኛውን የዲስፕሊን አፈፃፀም ስርዓት ሳይከተል ከስራ ማሰናበት ይችላል

2) በዚህ አንቀጽ ንዑስ አንቀፅ 1 መሰረት ከስራ የተሰናበተ ሰራተኛ በየትኛውም የፍርድ አካል ውሳኔ ወደ ስራ መመለስ አይችልም

የህገ መንግስቱና የደንብ ቁ. 155/2000 ድንጋጌዎች በስም (አንቀጽ ቁጥር) ይመሳሰላሉ፡፡ በተግባር ግን ተጻራሪ ናቸው፡፡ የመጀመሪያው መብት ያናጽፋል፤ ሁለተኛው ይነፍጋል፡፡ የሚኒስትሮች ምክር ቤት ህገ መንግስቱን የማክበርና የማስከበር ግዴታ ከተጣለባቸው አካላት መካከል አንደኛው ነው፡፡ በዚህ ግዴታው የህግ አውጭነት ስልጣኑ ምንጭ የሆነው ህግ ያሰመረለትን ወሰን ሊያከብር ይገባል፡፡ ምክር ቤቱ ደንብ ቁ. 155/2000 ለማውጣት ህግ እንደፈቀደለት የሚጠቅሰው የኢትዮጵያ ገቢዎችና ጉምሩክ ባለስልጣን ለማቋቋም የወጣ አዋጅ አዋጅ ቁ. 587/2000 አንቀጽ 19/1/ ለ ድንጋጌ ነው፡፡ ይዘቱ እንደሚከተለው ይነበባል፡፡

[የገቢዎችና ጉምሩክ ባለስልጣን] ሠራተኞች አስተዳደር የሚኒስትሮች ምክር ቤት በሚያወጣው ደንብ ይመራል፡፡

በስልጣን ምንጭነት የተጠቀሰው ህግ ም/ቤቱ በሠራተኞች አስተዳደር በተመለከተ ደንብ እንዲያወጣ ይፈቅድለታል፡፡ ይሁን እንጂ ሠራተኞች በጥርጣሬ እንዲሰናበቱና በየትኛውም የፍርድ አካል መብቸውን እንዳይጠይቁ የሚከለክል ኢ-ህገ መንግስታዊ ደንብ እንዲያወጣ ስልጣን አልሰጠውም፡፡

 3. የህብረህዋሳት ልገሳና ንቅለ ተከላ

የመድሀኒት፣ የምግብና የጤና ክብካቤ አስተዳደርና ቁጥጥር ደንብ ቁ. 299/2006 አንቀጽ 58-62 ድንጋጌዎች ስለ ደምና ደም ተዋጾ እና የሰውነት አካል ክፍሎችና የህብረህዋሳት ልገሳና ንቅለ ተከላ (donation of blood and blood products and donation and transplantation of organs and tissues) የሚከናወንባቸውን ሁኔታዎች ይደነግጋሉ፡፡ ደንቡ የወጣው የምግብ፣ የመድኃኒትና የጤና ክብካቤ አስተዳደርና ቁጥጥር አዋጅ ቁ. 661/2002 አንቀጽ 55/1/ እና አሁን በአዋጅ ቁ. 916/2008[2] በተተካው አዋጅ ቁ. 691/2003[3] አንቀጽ 5 ለሚኒስትሮች ምክር ቤት በተሰጠ ስልጣን እንደሆነ በመግቢያው ላይ ተመልክቷል፡፡ አዋጅ ቁ. 661/2002 የአካላት ልገሳና ንቀለ ተከላ የሚመለከት ድንጋጌ አልያዘም፡፡ አንቀጽ 55/1/ ም/ቤቱ የሰጠው ስልጣን አዋጁን ለማስፈጸም የሚረዱ ደንቦች እንዲያወጣ ብቻ ነው፡፡ አዋጁ በዝምታ ያለፈውን ለዛውም ንቀለ ተከላን የሚያክል ትልቅ አገራዊ ጉዳይ በማስፈጸም ሰበብ በደንብ መወሰን የፓርላማን ቦታ መቀማት እንጂ በውክልና ህግ የማውጣት ተግባር (delegated legislation) አይደለም፡፡

እንደ ተጨማሪ የስልጣን ምንጭ የተጠቀሰው የአዋጅ ቁ. 691/2003 አንቀጽ 5 ትንሽ አግራሞት መፍጠሩ አይቀርም፡፡ ይዘቱ እንደሚከተለው ይነበባል፡፡

የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዴሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ የሚኒስትሮች ምክር ቤት ሥልጣንና ተግባር በሕገ መንግሥቱ አንቀጽ 77 የተመለከተው ይሆናል፡፡

ህገ መንግስት ጠቅሶ ህግ ማውጣት የሚችለው የተወካዮች ምክር ቤት ብቻ ነው፡፡ በአንቀጽ 77 ንዑስ አንቀጽ 13 እንደሰፈረው የሚኒስትሮች ም/ቤት የተወካዮች ም/ቤት በሚሰጠው ስልጣን መሰረት ደንብ የማውጣት ስልጣን አለው፡፡ ስልጣን በማስተላለፍ የሚፈጠረው የወካይ-ተወካይ ግኝኑነት ሚኒስትሮችን ከአስፈጻሚነት በተጨማሪ የህግ አውጭነት ሚና ያላብሳቸዋል፡፡ ከዚህ በተቃራኒ በውክልና የተላለፈ ስልጣን በሌለበት የሚወጣ ማንኛውም ደንብ የህጋዊነትና ህገ መንግስታዊነት ገደቦችን ይጥሳል፡፡

ከላይ በምሳሌነት የተጠቀሱት አስተዳደራዊ ድንጋጌዎች አሳሳቢ እየሆነ የመጣውን የህጋዊነትና የህገ መንግስታዊነት ችግር ያንጸባርቃሉ፡፡ ውጤታማ የቁጥጥር ስልቶች ባልተረዘጉበት ሁኔታ በየጊዜው የሚወጡት መመሪያዎችና ደንቦች በስም ‘የበታች ህጎች’ በተግባር ግን ‘የበላይ ህጎች’ መሆናቸው አይቀርም፡፡

 4. የባንክ የዲሬክተሮች ቦርድ አባልነት

በሰ/መ/ቁ. 44226 (አመልካች የኢትዮጵያ ብሔራዊ ባንክ እና ተጠሪዎች እነ ህብረት ኢንሹራንስ ኩባንያ /3 ሰዎች/ ታህሳስ 15 2003 .. ቅጽ 11) የአመልካች መመሪያ ከፊል ድንጋጌዎች ስልጣን የሰጠውን አዋጅ ስለሚቃረኑ ተፈጻሚነት እንዳይኖራቸው በተጠሪዎች ክስ ቀርቦ በፌደራል መጀመሪያ እና ከፍተኛ ፍርድ ቤቶች እንዲሻሩ ተወስኗል፡፡ ተቃውሞ የቀረበበት መመሪያ እ.ኤ.አ. 2006 ዓ.ም. የወጣው Directive No. SBB/39/2006 Licensing and Supervision of Banking Business፡ Amendment for New Bank Licensing and Approval of Directors and CEO ሲሆን የባንክ የዲሬክተሮች ቦርድ አባል በተመሳሳይ ጊዜ በሌላ የገንዘብ ተቋም የቦርድ አባል ሆኖ እንዳያገለግል፣ 75 ፐርሰንት አባላት የመጀመሪያ ዲግሪ እንዲኖራቸው እንዲሁም በድጋሚ መመረጥ እንዳይችሉ የተለያዩ ገደቦችን ይጥላል፡፡ ባንኩ መመሪያውን ያወጣው በጊዜው ጸንተው በነበሩት የገንዘብና ባንክ አዋጅ ቁ. 83/1986 አንቀጽ 41 እና የባንክ ስራ ፈቃድና ቁጥጥር አዋጅ ቁ. 84/1986 አንቀጽ 36 እንደሆነ በመመሪያ መግቢያ ላይ ተገልጿል፡፡

ጉዳዩ በሰበር ሲታይ ባንኩ መመሪያውን ለማውጣት ስልጣን እንዳለው በተደረሰበት ድምዳሜ መሰረት የስር ፍ/ቤቶች ውሳኔዎች ተሽረዋል፡፡ ሆኖም ለስልጣኑ ምንጭ ችሎቱ የጠቀሳቸው ድንጋጌዎች ባንኩ ራሱ በመመሪያው ላይ ካሰፈራቸው ይለያሉ፡፡ ችሎቱ ለህግ ትርጉሙ ድጋፍ ያደረገው የባንኩን የመቆጣጠር ስልጣን እና በሁለቱም አዋጆች በጥቅል የተነገው ባንኩ አዋጆቹን ለማስፈጸም የተሰጠው መመሪያ የማውጣት ስልጣን ነው፡፡

የማስፈጸም ዓለማ ያለው መመሪያ በሚያስፈጽመው አዋጅ ላይ ከተደነገጉ ጉዳዮች በላይ አልፎ ሊሄድ አይችልም፡፡ የመቆጣጠር ስልጣን እንዲሁ በህጉ ከተዘረጋው የቁጥጥር ማዕቀፍ ሊያፈነግጥ አይገባም፡፡ የመቆጣጠርና የማስፈጸም ስልጣን ብቻውን መመሪያውን ህጋዊ የሚያደርገው ከሆነ በባንኩ መመሪያ የማውጣት ስልጣን ላይ ምንም ዓይነት ገደብ ማስቀመጥ አይታሰብም፡፡ በዳይሬክተሮች ቦርድ አባልነት ላይ የሚደረጉ ገደቦችን በመመሪያ ለመወሰን መጀመሪያ ዋናው ህግ መሰረታዊ የፖሊሲ አቅጣጫዎችን ሊደነግግ ይገባል፡፡ የሰበር ችሎት ያንጸባረቀው አቋም ማናቸውንም የባንኩን መመሪያዎች ህጋዊነት ያለጥያቄ አስቀድሞ የማጽደቅ ያክል ነው፡፡

[1] በትምህርት ተቋማት የአምልኮ ስርዓትን በሚመለከት የወጣ መመሪያ፡ የትምህርት ሚኒስቴር ህዳር 2000 ዓ.ም.

[2] የኢትዮጵያ ፌደራላዊ ዴሞክራሲያዊ ሪፑብሊክ ስራ አስፈጻሚ አካላትን ስልጣንና ተግባር መወሰኛ አዋጅ ቁ. 916/2008

[3] የኢትዮዽያ ፌደራላዊ ዲሞከራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ አስፈፃሚ አካላትን ስልጣንና ተግባር ለመወሰን የወጣ አዋጅ ቁ. 691/2003

Interest Free Banking Directives Number SBB/51/2011

LICENSING AND SUPERVISION OF BANKING BUSINESS Directives to Authorize the Business of

Interest Free Banking   DOWNLOAD (PDF)

Directives Number SBB/51/2011

WHEREAS there has been increasingly strong public demand for interest free banking products in Ethiopia;

WHEREAS supply of such products by banks has to be carried out in a safe and sound manner;

WHEREAS there has been lack of regulatory framework for interest free banking business;

NOW, THEREFORE, in accordance with Article 22(2) of Banking Business Proclamation Number 592/2008, the National Bank of Ethiopia hereby issues these directives.

1. Short Title

These directives may be cited as “Directives to Authorize the Business of Interest Free Banking No. SBB/ 51/2011”

2. Definitions

For the purpose of these directives, unless the context provides otherwise:

2.1“bank” means a company licensed by the National Bank to undertake banking business or a bank owned by the Government;

2.2“interest free banking business” refers to banking business in which mobilizing or advancing funds is undertaken in a manner consistent with Islamic finance principles and mode of operation that avoids receiving or paying interest;

2.3“interest free banking window” refers to a unit within a conventional bank exclusively offering interest free banking services; and

2.4“National Bank” means the National Bank of Ethiopia.

3. Scope

Provisions of these directives shall apply to all banks in Ethiopia engaged in interest free banking business.

4. Authorization

4.1 A bank shall obtain a written authorization from the National Bank to carry on interest free banking business.

4.2 A bank which wishes to obtain an authorization to carry on interest free banking business shall submit a duly completed application in the prescribed format together with documents specified below:

a)a report on resource mobilization and use;

b)planned balance sheet structure for interest free window and the whole bank;

c)maximum share of planned interest free business in total consolidated balance sheet of the bank;

d)risk management framework for all interest free banking products;

e)a statement on availability of adequate capacity and facilities to run interest free banking business;

f) accounting aspects, such as accounting policies to be followed and profit and loss sharing mechanisms;

g)evidence of financial strength as reflected in capital adequacy, asset quality, earnings capability, future earnings prospects, and current liquidity position and forecast for the next 12 months;

h) track records of adherence to prudential regulations, credit discipline, quality of customer services ;

i) a statement on the convenience as well as the needs of the population of the area to be served by interest free banking services;

j) methods of segregating the funds of interest free banking businesses from all other business ; and

k) such other information as required by the National Bank while processing the application.

4.3The National Bank shall evaluate the application submitted by a bank in view of risk management, Banking Business Proclamation, applicable directives issued by it as well as other rules and regulations; and upon its satisfaction, may authorize the applicant to open an interest free banking window.

5. Prohibition

5.1Banks shall not alter maximum share of interest free banking business in their consolidated balance sheet without prior approval of the National Bank.

5.2Failure to comply with sub-article 1 of this article may result in the closure of interest free banking window.

6. Maintenance of Accounts and Financial Statements

Banks engaged in interest free banking business shall:

6.1keep separate books of accounts in respect of interest free banking operations and ensure proper maintenance of records for all transactions for segregation of funds.

6.2report their interest free banking business activities every month to the National Bank.

7. Compliance with Regulatory and Supervisory Requirement

7.1In conducting interest free banking business, banks shall comply mutatis mutandis with all regulatory and supervisory requirements except National Bank’s directives on interest rate.

7.2 Equity participation in a project or a company shall be in strict compliance with “ limitation on Investment of Banks Directives No. SBB/12/96’’.

8.Effective Date

These Directives shall enter into force as of the 1st day of October 2011.

ASSET CLASSIFICATION AND PROVISIONING FOR DEVELOPMENT FINANCE INSTITUTIONS Directives No. SBB/ 48/2010

LICENSING AND SUPERVISION OF BANKING BUSINESS

Directives No. SBB/ 48/2010     DOWNLOAD (PDF)

ASSET CLASSIFICATION AND PROVISIONING FOR DEVELOPMENT FINANCE INSTITUTIONS

1. Issuing Authority

These Directives are issued by the National Bank of Ethiopia pursuant to the authority vested in it by articles 21 and 22 of Banking Business Proclamation No. 592/2008.

2. Short Title

These Directives may be cited as “Asset Classification and Provisioning for

Development Finance Institutions Directives No. SBB/ 48/2010”.

3. Purpose

The purpose of these Directives is to provide guidelines to development finance institutions to assure that:

3.1loans are regularly reviewed and prudently classified in a manner that appropriately reflect credit risk;

3.2loans which are not performing in accordance with contractual repayment terms are timely recognized and reported as past due ;

3.3accrued but uncollected interest on loans is properly accounted for; and

3.4timely and adequate provisions are made to the “Provisions for Loan Losses Account” in order to ensure that disclosed capital and earnings performance are accurately stated. Continue reading ASSET CLASSIFICATION AND PROVISIONING FOR DEVELOPMENT FINANCE INSTITUTIONS Directives No. SBB/ 48/2010

Directive No. SBB/40/2006 AMENDMENT OF BRANCH OPENING

Directive No. SBB/40/2006 AMENDMENT OF BRANCH OPENING

Directive No.  SBB/40/2006 AMENDMENT OF BRANCH OPENING

1. Issuing Authority

These Directives are issued by the National Bank of Ethiopia pursuant to the authority vested in it by Article 41 of the Monetary and Banking Proclamation No. 83/1994 and Article 5(4) of the Licensing and Supervision of Banking Business Proclamation No. 84/1994.

2. Definition

For the purpose of this directive the term:

2.1 “The Bank” shall mean National Bank of Ethiopia;

2.2 “Branch” shall mean any place of business at which deposits are received or cheques are paid out or money is lent and other banking business as defined in article 2(2) of Proclamation number 84/1994 is solicited.

3. Requirement

A bank shall obtain prior authorization from the Bank to open a branch office.

A bank planning to open a branch shall submit a duly completed application attached to these directives together with a covering letter to the Bank and shall pay the fee indicated under article 6 of these directives.

A bank authorized to open a branch shall open the said branch and commence operation within 6(six) months from the date of the grant of authorization.

A bank authorized to open a branch shall notify the Bank the date it plans to commence operation in the new branch 15 (fifteen) days before the planned date of commencement of operation.

Before commencing operation a bank authorized to open a branch shall fulfill the following:

Ensure that the bank’s relevant policy and procedure manuals, and NBE directives are distributed to appropriate staff members of the branch to be opened;

Ensure that the branch is adequately guarded;

Display in a visible area of the branch working hours, copy of the bank’s license and branch authorization;

Ensure that the banking hall and staff operating area are suitable for the type of business to be undertaken in the premises housing the branch including but not limited to:

Proper ventilation and circulation of fresh air;

Suitable and clean sanitary service;

Sufficient and suitable lighting;

Cashiers’ Till, access   to which is restricted to authorized persons.

Ensure that the branch has appropriate strong room or safe/vault;

Place fire extinguishers in appropriate area;

Have insurance policy at least for the following:

Fire and other perils, Burglary and theft, Fidelity, Cash and valuable in premises and transit,

Ensure that outer doors of the building housing the branch are of heavy duty metal;

Ensure that all windows and glass walls of the building housing the branch are

reinforced with metal grills;

Obligation of the Bank

The Bank shall give a written response within five working days from the date of receipt of the application.

5. Scope of Application

5.1 Requirements set under sub-article 3.5 herein above shall be applicable on new branches as well as branches opened before the effective date of these Directives.

5.2 Branches opened before the effective date of these Directives shall fulfill

requirements under sub-article 3.5 herein above latest by June 30, 2007.

6. Fee

A bank applying to open a branch shall pay an investigation fee of Birr 500 (Birr five hundred) for each branch.

7. Prohibition

No bank shall relocate its branch without prior notification and approval by the Bank.

8. Repeal

Directives No. SBB/22/1996 are hereby repealed and replaced by these directives.

9. Effective Date

These Directives shall enter into force as of the 8th  day of May 2006.

 

Directive No. SBB/41/2007 Transfer Duties and Responsibilities Related to Establishment and Operation of Export Credit Guarantee Scheme from the National Bank of Ethiopia

Directive No. SBB/41/2007

Directives to Transfer Duties and Responsibilities Related to Establishment and Operation of Export Credit Guarantee Scheme from the National Bank of Ethiopia to Development Bank of Ethiopia

Whereas, national exporters need to compete on an equal footing with other exporters in increasingly competitive foreign markets and satisfy foreign buyers’ requirements;

Whereas, it is necessary that exporters with bona-fide export orders should not lose the export opportunity due to inability to get bank credit;

Whereas, operation of enhanced export credit guarantee schemes has been found to be supportive of the export sector by availing the necessary financial resources from banks for pre and post-shipment of exports;

Whereas, export credit guarantee schemes have proved to be necessary vehicles to facilitate exporters’ access to bank credit;

Whereas, the Government of Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia has decided to transfer duties and responsibilities related to establishment and operation of export credit guarantee scheme from National Bank of Ethiopia to Development Bank of Ethiopia;

Now, therefore, in accordance with Articles 6 and 61 of the Monetary and Banking Proclamation No. 83/1994, the National Bank of Ethiopia hereby issues these directives.

Article 1

Definitions

For the purpose of these directives, unless the context provides otherwise:

“The Bank” shall mean National Bank of Ethiopia;

“Guarantor” shall mean Development Bank of Ethiopia;

“Financing Banks” are licensed commercial banks (excluding Development Bank of Ethiopia) in Ethiopia;

“Bankable Export Project” shall mean a project appraised by financing banks in line with their applicable credit policy and procedures and found within acceptable risk level by the Guarantor;

“Export” is non-coffee export;

“Export Credit Guarantee” shall mean a guarantee provided by the Guarantor to safeguard export financing banks against losses resulting from the export transactions they finance;

“Exporter” is a person engaged in non-coffee exports;

“Existing Exporters” shall mean exporters who have been engaged in export business for at least 12 months prior to the date of application for export loan under export credit guarantee scheme who can produce evidence of receipt of export proceeds over those months;

“New Exporters” shall mean exporters who have been engaged in export business for less than 12 months at the time of applying for export loan under export credit guarantee scheme;

“Fund” is a special fund created by the Guarantor for financing guarantee

settlements under Export Credit Guarantee Scheme;

“Outstanding Active Export Credit Guarantees” shall mean guarantees issued by the Bank to financing banks, which on the effective date of these directives (i) have not expired or (ii) original due dates have expired but extended by the Bank and not yet due;

“Outstanding Inactive Export Credit Guarantees” shall mean export credit guarantees issued by the Bank before the effective date of these directives which have been (i)

claimed by financing banks, or (ii) claimed by financing banks and disputed, or (iii) settled by the Bank and under litigation or transferred to Legal Services Department of the Bank for litigation;

1.13 “Perishable Export Commodities” shall mean export commodities      subject to significant deterioration in quality or spoilage or decay, such as fruits, vegetables, molasses, unpreserved meat, flowers, live animals and other commodities as determined by the Bank;

1.14 “Pre-Shipment Export Credit Guarantee” is a guarantee provided by the

Guarantor up to a maximum of 365 days to financing banks to cover pre-shipment export loan extended to exporters;

1.15 “Post-Shipment Export Credit Guarantee” is a guarantee provided by the

Guarantor up to a maximum of 180 days to financing banks to cover post-shipment export loan extended to exporters.

Article 2

Eligibility Criteria

Exporters shall satisfy all of the following in order to be considered eligible for export credit guarantee:

The export project to be financed under the export credit guarantee scheme shall be bankable;

Exporters shall not carry “loss” category loans, as defined in the Bank’s Directives on Provisioning, owed to any bank in Ethiopia;

Exporters shall present a bona-fide order from a foreign buyer;

Exporters shall produce evidence of a valid investment certificate and/or trade license;

New exporters shall:

produce property or other collateral equivalent to at least 40% for producer exporters and 50% for other exporters of the amount of the loan requested;

produce evidence that all proceeds from non-perishable  goods to be exported shall be paid through irrevocable letter of credit; however, no letter of credit shall be required for perishable export commodities;

Existing exporters shall produce from local banks documentary evidence about receipt of export proceeds in the 12 months preceding the date of application for export loan under export credit guarantee scheme;

Exporters shall submit all documents required by financing banks to conduct their normal credit risk analysis.

Financing banks may approve pre-shipment or post-shipment credit to exporters upon fulfillment of the above eligibility criteria.

Article 3

Issuance of Guarantee

Upon written request of a financing bank, the Guarantor shall issue export credit guarantee to cover 80% of the outstanding loan balance and interest thereof extended to an exporter by the financing bank, provided the request is acceptable to the Guarantor.

Article 4

The Guarantee Amount

The Guarantor may issue export credit guarantee to:

4.1 Existing exporters, who fulfill eligibility criteria set under article 2.1 herein above, up to 100% of export proceeds actually received through financing banks from non-coffee exports in the 12 months preceding the date of application for export loan under export credit guarantee scheme;

New producer exporters, who fulfill eligibility criteria set under article              2.1 above, up to two point five (2.5) times the estimated value of the pledged collateral

Other new exporters, who fulfill eligibility criteria set under articles 2.1 above,  up to  two (2) times the value of the pledged collateral;

Article 5

Obligations of Financing Banks

Financing banks shall:

critically evaluate credit worthiness of the exporter who applies for a loan and shall

ensure that the export project to be financed is bankable;

finance only bankable export projects;

Collect credit information from all banks in Ethiopia to ensure that an exporter

applying for export loan does not carry “loss” category loans owed to any bank;

exercise all reasonable and usual care regarding operations of export financing and act with utmost good faith;

Channel to the exporter’s loan account, in settlement of the loan, all export proceeds

collected from an exporter after the disbursement of the loan covered by the export credit guarantee.

promptly notify the Guarantor within 15 days of the occurrence of any event or development likely to cause a loss or default;

collect on behalf of the Guarantor interest due to it  on loans covered by export credit guarantee; and

act as the agent of the Guarantor to recover the due amount from the defaulting exporter and report to the Guarantor actions taken on such borrowers promptly.

Where the exporter defaults, the financing bank, subject to prior written  agreement of the Guarantor, may:

extend the due date of  pre or post shipment export credit   covered by export credit guarantee for a maximum of 180 days if it determines that the financial position of the borrower is sound and the loan repayment problem is temporary; or provide additional loan that may not exceed 50 percent of the existing outstanding loan covered by export credit guarantee and extend the due date of both the new and the existing loans for a maximum of 180 days if it determines that the borrower will be rehabilitated and settle the loans out of the cash flow to be generated.

Financing banks shall submit to the Guarantor:

Relevant credit risk analysis report and all other documents necessary to ensure the export project to be financed is bankable; and Monthly export credit performance report in accordance with the table attached with these Directives or any other format developed by the Guarantor. Such report shall be filed within twenty days after the end of the reporting month.

Article 6

Revolving Credit

Financing banks may, during the life of the export credit guarantee, repeatedly disburse loan to a borrower for export purposes equivalent to the amount of the partial or full loan settlement referred to under sub-article 5.1.5, so long as the outstanding balance of the loan does not exceed the export credit guarantee issued to cover it.

Article 7

Obligation of the Exporter

Exporter shall:

7.1 Provide accurate information, accompanied with all supporting documents, to financing banks on their business, export activities and bank loan repayment status;

7.2 Exercise due care so as to ensure that the advances are used for the purposes they are earmarked for;

7.3     Repay the entire amount of the outstanding loan and interest thereof   to the financing bank on or before due date of the loan;

7.4     In case of difficulties experienced in manufacture or shipment of goods or realization of export proceeds from foreign buyers, they should discuss the problem and the proposed course of action with their financing banks.

Article 8

Risk Coverage

8.1 The Guarantor shall cover 80 percent of the risk, which may result from default of repayment;

8.2 The financing bank shall bear the remaining portion (20 percent) of default risk.

Article 9

The Guarantee Fund and Fee

9.1 The Guarantor shall create a Guarantee Fund Account for funding the Export Credit Guarantee Scheme;

9.2 Financing banks shall pay, out of the interest rate stated under article 10.1 hereunder, 2 (two) percent of the outstanding loan balance covered by export credit guarantee per annum to the Guarantor calculated in line with interest income accrual or collection policy and procedure of the respective financing bank. They shall pay such interest to the Guarantor on quarterly basis;

9.3 Interest income collected in line with article 9.2 above shall be transferred to Guarantee Fund Account.

9.4 The Guarantor may invest the money in the guarantee fund account in risk free and liquid assets such as Treasury bills and transfer the income from such investments to its Income Statement.

9.5 Guarantee fund created by the Bank in line with provisions of article 9 of the Bank’s Directives No. SBB/38/2006 shall be used to settle claims against export credit guarantee filed with the Bank before the effective date of these directives;

9.6 The closure of the Guarantee fund account with the Bank shall be decided by the Bank .

Article 10

Rate of Interest

10.1   Financing banks shall charge their respective prevailing lowest lending interest

rate on pre- or post-shipment loans covered by the export credit guarantee scheme;

10.2 Non-compliance with the stipulation of the credit guarantee scheme might result in charging the penal rate used by the financing bank.  In the case of proven mis-use of funds, the financing bank may demand the immediate repayment of the loan.

Article 11

Collateral

11.1 The Export Credit Guarantee of the Guarantor serves as part of the collateral when exporters apply for financing;

11.2 When applying for post-shipment credit, the exporter shall hand over to the financing bank all the necessary shipping and other documents relating to the goods shipped for export.   Also, the exporter shall authorize the financing bank to collect or receive payment from the foreign buyer, on the basis of which the post-shipment credit is sanctioned to the exporter.  Goods in possession of the financing bank are considered as additional collateral providing the necessary security for the financing bank;

11.3 In case a borrower defaults, the Guarantor and financing bank shall share the cash collateral, or any proceeds from liquidation of any property pledged as collateral, or any proceeds from liquidation of collateral secured through court ruling, in proportion to the risk they took in lending to the defaulting borrower, that is, the Guarantor shall be entitled to collect 80%, leaving the balance (20%) to the financing bank.

Article 12

Repayment

12.1 Without prejudice to article 5.2 above, repayment period for pre-shipment credit shall not exceed 365 days.  Pre-shipment advances shall be repaid by handing over the shipping documents to the financing bank within 10 days after the goods have been shipped for export.  The date of shipment is the date of the stamp on the bill of lading or other shipping documents.  The repayment of loan may be by way of adjusting from post-shipment credit obtained against the documents or by payment in an accepted manner;

12.2 Exporters, adjusting the pre-shipment credit, shall have the possibility of extending the credit into the post-shipment period. Exporters willing to use this facility shall have to apply well in advance to their financing bank for a post- shipment credit to avoid possible delays, after the goods have been shipped.  Any non-compliance with the above stipulation may result in rejection of the exporter’s post-shipment credit application and immediate repayment obligation of the pre-shipment credit;

12.3 Without prejudice to article 5.2 above, repayment period of the post-shipment credit shall not exceed 180 days. Post-shipment advances will be adjusted by the financing bank out of payments received from the foreign importer to enable it to automatically settle the outstanding debt of its exporter-borrower, after payment from the foreign buyer has been collected.

Article 13

Settlement of Guaranteed Portion to Financing Bank

13.1 In case an export credit goes on default, the Guarantor shall pay the guaranteed portion of the loan amount lent to the exporter within seven days after the complete set of necessary documents have been presented to it.  The Guarantor, however, shall not pay any interest on the export credit during the seven days following submission of complete set of documents by financing banks;

13.2 When repayment of the full or partial amount of defaulted loan is effected by the defaulting exporter to the financing bank after the settlement of the guaranteed portion, the financing bank shall transfer the money to the Guarantor within 7 days;

Article 14

Expiry of Guarantee

14.1 Export Credit Guarantee shall be issued for a specific period of time that shall not exceed i) 365 days to cover pre-shipment export credit and ii) 180 days to cover post shipment export credit.  However, the Guarantor, upon request of financing banks, may extend expiry date of the guarantee for a maximum of 180 days from its expiry date.  At the last day of the guarantee period, unless extended in writing by the Guarantor, the Guarantee shall be null and void;

14.2 Under normal circumstances, the last day of the Guarantee shall be that

indicated on the “Export Credit Guarantee Letter” as ending date of the Guarantee.

Article 15

Default and Non-compliance

15.1 Where an exporter defaults and cannot qualify for loan rescheduling or

restructuring stipulated under article 5.2 above, he/she shall be suspended from all types of bank credit from the entire banking system until he/she fully settles the outstanding loan including interest and charges;

15.2 To facilitate the suspension, the Guarantor shall circulate the names of all defaulters under the export credit guarantee scheme to all banks.  Moreover, the Guarantor shall publish the names of such defaulters in widely circulating newspapers;

15.3 Upon receipt of defaulters list stipulated under sub-article 15.2 above, all banks shall deny provision of new bank credit service(s) and shall not renew all existing overdraft or other credit facilities to any one exporter in the list until the Guarantor notifies them that the exporter has fully settled his/her overdue export loans;

15.4 If a financing bank does not comply with the provisions of these directives, the Guarantor maintains the power to reduce guarantee coverage and, in extreme cases, to suspend new coverage for a period of four years.

Article 16

Inspection

The Bank may undertake an inspection of any bank, including the Guarantor, to verify  its compliance  with the provisions of these Directives.

Article 17 Administration of Outstanding Active Export Credit Guarantees

17.1 The Guarantor shall administer outstanding active export credit guarantees issued before the effective date of these directives in line with the terms and

conditions of the guarantees set at the time of their issuance.

17.2 The Bank shall transfer all files and documents in its possession related to outstanding active export credit guarantees to the Guarantor.

Article 18

Administration of outstanding Inactive Export Credit Guarantees

The Bank shall administer outstanding inactive export credit guarantees that are outstanding as of the effective date of these Directives until their full settlement or resolution.

Article 19 Repeal

The Establishment and Operation of Export Credit Guarantee Scheme Directives

Number SBB/38/2006 is hereby repealed and replaced by these Directives.

Article 20

Effective Date

These directives shall come into force as of the 1st day of February 2007.